• migrate
  • This interaction can be tuned by the glycosylation pattern of PSGL-1, such that certain glycovariants of PSGL-1 will have unique affinities for different selectins, allowing in some cases for cells to migrate to specific sites within the body (e.g. the skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once in the interstitial fluid, leukocytes migrate along a chemotactic gradient towards the site of injury or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The complement system is composed of a large number of plasma proteins that when activated initiate a proteolytic cascade culminating in the formation of a membrane-attack complex that forms a pore on a cell surface resulting in cell death 1 . (jove.com)
  • The L-Selectin molecule is composed of various domains: one homologous to lectins, one to epidermal growth factor, and two to the consensus repeat units found in C3/C4 binding proteins. (prospecbio.com)
  • Integrins are the link between the leukocytes and the large ECM proteins and transduce signals sent between these two groups. (edu.au)
  • E-selectin recognizes and binds to sialylated carbohydrates present on the surface proteins of certain leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • When an APC, such as a dendritic cell, binds a foreign antigen it becomes activated and moves into the lymph nodes (sites for antigen sampling by T cells) via afferent lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokine CCL21 then binds to its receptor CCR7 expressed on the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Endothelial cells regulate hemostatic balance by site-specific release of procoagulants and anticoagulation factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • that is, they work locally to regulate the function of the cells that produce them (i.e. they are autocrine agents) or of nearby cells (i.e. they are paracrine agents). (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • The team is also exploring mechanisms that imprint lymphocyte homing and chemokine receptor expression during tissue-specific immune responses, and are developing techniques to recapitulate such regulation in vitro for cell targeting and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4: 6: 461-7 Debes GF, Arnold CN, Young AJ, Krautwald S, Lipp M, Hay JB, Butcher EC "Chemokine receptor CCR7 required for T lymphocyte exit from peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Among these are several enzymes, which are expressed on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells and have their enzymatically active domains outside of the cell membrane (ecto-enzymes). (ahajournals.org)
  • Their role is to maintain the stability of the cell membrane and to facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the immune response and in the connections that allow cells to connect to one another to form tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid bilayer of the cell membrane consists of two layers of lipids, with the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane made up of the polar head groups, and the inner part of the membrane made up of the non-polar fatty acid tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vesicle merges with the cell membrane so that the glycolipid can be presented on the cell's outside surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Here we describe a cell-based ELISA assay that allows studying the recognition of trimeric HIV-1 Env by monoclonal antibodies. (jove.com)
  • Following expression of HIV-1 trimeric Env at the surface of transfected cells, conformation specific anti-Env antibodies are incubated with the cells. (jove.com)
  • With the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), the complement cascade can be used to lyse any cell population in an antigen-specific manner. (jove.com)
  • Depletion of cells by the complement cascade is achieved by the addition of complement fixing antigen-specific antibodies and rabbit complement to the starting cell population. (jove.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies that block the alpha-4 subunit interfere with this binding, and have been shown to interfere with recruitment of eosinophils and T-cells in the inflamed lung. (anaesthetist.com)
  • These anti-P-selectin antibodies may also cause dissociation of preformed P-selectin/PSGL-1 complexes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • physiological
  • Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. (jove.com)
  • Under typical physiological conditions, endothelial cells actively sense and respond to signals around from their extracellular environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecule
  • Two major cell adhesion molecule families, selectins and integrins, have been identified to participate in metastasis [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers began to question the role of ICAM-1 as a simple adhesion molecule upon discovering that ICAM-1 serves as the binding site for entry of the major group of human rhinovirus (HRV) into various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes called glycosyltransferases link the saccharide to the lipid molecule, and also play a role in assembling the correct oligosaccharide so that the right receptor can be activated on the cell which responds to the presence of the glycolipid on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Endothelial cells are highly active, sensing and responding to signals from extracellular environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a highly complex process involving extensive interplay between cells, soluble factors, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • E selectin has a cassette structure: an N-terminal, C-type lectin domain, an EGF (epidermal-growth-factor)-like domain, 6 Sushi domain (SCR repeat) units, a transmembrane domain (TM) and an intracellular cytoplasmic tail (cyto). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its C-type lectin domain, EGF-like, SCR repeats, and transmembrane domains are each encoded by separate exons, whereas the E-selectin cytosolic domain derives from two exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlates
  • The metastatic capacity of tumor cells correlates with their ability to exit from the blood circulation, to colonize distant organs, and to grow in distant organs [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • pathological
  • L-Selectin may be shed by proteolytic cleavage and circulating levels in biological fluids may be used as an indicator of various pathological conditions. (prospecbio.com)
  • interaction
  • The interaction of these cell surface markers is the basis of cell recognitions, and initiates cellular responses that contribute to activities such as regulation, growth, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Leukocytes emigrate from the blood into inflamed tissues through a series of adhesion events ("the adhesion cascade"), each of which is dependent upon the state of endothelial cell activation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 The blood vessels in irradiated normal tissues often undergo adverse changes that can compromise their functions, and because these changes precede the development of fibrosis, it has been hypothesized that vascular damage could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of late radiation damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • White blood cells (leukocytes) perform most of their functions in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocytes use the blood as a transport medium to reach the tissues of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes the immobilisation of the leukocytes, despite the sheer forces of the ongoing blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • That makes them smaller than red blood cells, which allows them to flow easily through the circulation as well as the microcirculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four main human blood types (A, B, AB, O) are determined by the oligosaccharide attached to a specific glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells, which acts as an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unmodified antigen, called the H antigen, is the characteristic of type O, and is present on red blood cells of all blood types. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 1980s, it was established that when the parasite (both the trophozoite and schizont forms) enters the blood stream and infects RBCs, the infected cells form knobs on their surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • 194: 10: 1541-7 Kim CH, Rott L, Kunkel EJ, Genovese MC, Andrew DP, Wu L, Butcher EC "Rules of chemokine receptor association with T cell polarization in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. (jove.com)
  • chemokine
  • Sigmundsdottir H, Pan J, Debes GF, Alt C, Habtezion A, Soler D, Butcher EC "DCs metabolize sunlight-induced vitamin D3 to 'program' T cell attraction to the epidermal chemokine CCL27. (wikipedia.org)
  • high affinity
  • Subsequently it was shown that the presence of gp130 alone was sufficient to reproduce the low affinity form of the receptor, and co-transfection of COS-7 cells with LIFR and gp130 produced a high affinity receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. (jove.com)
  • By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. (jove.com)
  • This surface expression is lost following the cells activation. (prospecbio.com)
  • Irradiation upregulated CD31 expression on HUVECs, independently of initial plating density and radiation-induced changes such as cell number, cell cycle stage, or cell size. (ahajournals.org)
  • Taken together these data strongly suggest that irradiation induces a marked increase in CD31 expression on endothelial cells as part of a general response to irradiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The production of E-selectin is stimulated by the expression of P-selectin which in turn, is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Shear forces are also found to affect E-selectin expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Immobilized P-selectin also inhibited macrophage differentiation in response to M-CSF alone as demonstrated by morphology, phenotype, and phagocytosis analysis. (jimmunol.org)