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  • Stimulation
  • Upon stimulation by secretagogues in particular, the acid-secreting pump (H + -K + -ATPase) transits from the intracellular tubulovesicles, where it is stored, towards the apical surface of the cell, and remains there throughout the active acid secretory phase, allowing for the secretion of a proton in exchange for a potassium cation consuming the energy equivalent to one ATP molecule breakdown ( 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS. (nih.gov)
  • Downregulation of P2X7 and upregulation of CD73 in Treg after antigenic stimulation may be an important mechanism to maintain the ability of Treg to generate immunosuppressive adenosine. (physiology.org)
  • On murine T lymphocytes the A2aR is highly expressed ( 20 ), and after T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, A2aR mRNA levels increase by a factor of ∼10 ( 16 ). (physiology.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Here, we show that the expression of a potential glucagon inhibitor, the adenosine A1 receptor (Adora1), is gradually diminished in α-cells of NOD mice, autoantibody-positive (AA + ) and overtly type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients during the progression of disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Gabapentin is structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) but it does not modify GABAA or GABAB radioligand binding, it is not converted metabolically into GABA or a GABA agonist, and it is not an inhibitor of GABA uptake or degradation. (healthyplace.com)
  • CD73-derived adenosine acts as potent inhibitor of inflammation, and regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to express CD73 as a novel marker. (physiology.org)
  • dopamine
  • In contrast, caffeine at doses reflecting daily human consumption does not induce a release of dopamine in the shell of the nucleus accumbens but leads to a release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with its reinforcing properties. (medscape.com)
  • transporters
  • Globally, a collection of neural stimuli, efferent and afferent, endocrine and paracrine agents, acting directly at apical and basolateral membrane receptors/transporters of the parietal cell or acting indirectly through the other cells of the gastric mucosa, as well as mechanical and chemical stimuli participate in acid secretion physiology (e.g., see recent reviews in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The mechanism of nucleotide release appears to be cell type specific and may involve membrane ion channels, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and exocytotic granule secretion ( 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • extracellular
  • The extracellular site of adenosine formation is generally thought to result from the sequential dephosphorylation of extracellular ATP by action of an ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) followed by CD73 ( 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT) and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. (frontiersin.org)
  • neurons
  • In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal cellular networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • urine
  • A new and rapid method for the clinical determination of alpha-amylase activities in human serum and urine", CLIN. (epo.org)
  • Additionally, caffeine increases the production of urine with water and electrolyte secretion patterns very similar to those seen with the thiazides [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • increases
  • The dominant effect of an elevation of plasma adenosine in the renal vasculature is an A 2A AR- and A 2B AR-mediated vasodilatation that increases global as well as medullary renal blood flow and is in part endothelium-dependent. (springer.com)
  • Because adenosine production increases in hypoxia, the issue of a role of the nucleoside in the renal injury following ischemia reperfusion has been studied extensively. (springer.com)
  • drugs
  • The dose is often decreased in patients on dipyridamole (Persantine) and diazepam (Valium) because adenosine potentiates the effects of these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • caffeine
  • In humans, tolerance to some subjective effects of caffeine may occur, but most of the time, complete tolerance to many effects of caffeine on the central nervous system (CNS) does not occur. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, the reinforcing stimulus functions of caffeine are limited to low or moderate doses, while high doses usually are avoided. (medscape.com)
  • Affecting both the A1 and A2 receptors, albeit with a different potency.Synephrine's role in the LipoGenix Elite fat-burning CYS-TEM is to synergize with Caffeine and Yohimbine to create thermogenesis, which speeds up the body's metabolism to burn through fat stores faster with or without exercise. (lipogenixelite.com)
  • role
  • Derivatives of adenosine are widely found in nature and play an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer-as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine itself is a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The splicing of Adora1 and loss of Adora1 expression on α-cells may explain the hyperglucagonemia observed in prediabetic NOD mice and may contribute to the pathogenesis of human T1D and NOD disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Elevated fasting plasma glucagon levels ( 1 ) and reduced suppression of glucagon secretion after hyperglycemia ( 2 , 3 ) occurs in NOD mice and in spontaneously diabetic KK mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Elevated plasma glucagon levels after a glucose challenge or ingestion of a high-fat diet and increased duration of glucagon release during hyperglycemia have been observed in Adora1 knockout (KO) mice ( 12 - 14 ), suggesting that loss of Adora1 expression in α-cells may contribute to the pathology of NOD disease and human T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies using cultured human and mouse mast cells, and studies of mice lacking A 2B receptors, suggest that adenosine receptors, specifically the G s -coupled A 2A and A 2B receptors, might provide such a target. (aspetjournals.org)
  • exhibit
  • Similarly, early- and late-stage T1D patients exhibit diminished suppression of glucagon secretion after the administration or ingestion of glucose ( 4 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • activity
  • It is therefore the activity of this ecto-nucleotide cascade that determines whether P2 or P1 receptors are preferentially activated. (physiology.org)
  • production
  • the parietal cell of the gastric mucosa is a highly specialized cell that is responsible for the production and secretion of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the gastric lumen and, in humans, also of the Castle's intrinsic factor. (physiology.org)
  • evidence
  • Experimental evidence supports the notion that adenosine protects against ischemia-induced acute kidney injury by directly acting on renal endothelial and tubular A 1 AR. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • Albinus M, Finkbeiner E, Sosath B et al (1998) Isolated superfused juxtaglomerular cells from rat kidney: a model for study of renin secretion. (springer.com)
  • In humans, the A2aR is more highly expressed in CD4 + than in CD8 + T cells ( 14 ). (physiology.org)
  • test
  • Adenosine is used as an adjunct to thallous (thallium) chloride TI 201 or Tc99m myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (nuclear stress test) in patients unable to undergo adequate stress testing with exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • directly
  • It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • cAMP
  • This is mediated via the A1 receptor, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP and so causing cell hyperpolarization by increasing K+ efflux via inward rectifier K+ channels, subsequently inhibiting Ca2+ current. (wikipedia.org)
  • identify
  • In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical uses[edit] Supraventricular tachycardia[edit] In individuals with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify and convert the rhythm. (theinfolist.com)