• neurons
  • The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons, and different types of GABA interneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal cellular networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Here, we show that the expression of a potential glucagon inhibitor, the adenosine A1 receptor (Adora1), is gradually diminished in α-cells of NOD mice, autoantibody-positive (AA + ) and overtly type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients during the progression of disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD73-derived adenosine acts as potent inhibitor of inflammation, and regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to express CD73 as a novel marker. (physiology.org)
  • Gabapentin is structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) but it does not modify GABA A or GABA B radioligand binding, it is not converted metabolically into GABA or a GABA agonist, and it is not an inhibitor of GABA uptake or degradation. (nih.gov)
  • dopamine
  • In contrast, caffeine at doses reflecting daily human consumption does not induce a release of dopamine in the shell of the nucleus accumbens but leads to a release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with its reinforcing properties. (medscape.com)
  • transporters
  • Globally, a collection of neural stimuli, efferent and afferent, endocrine and paracrine agents, acting directly at apical and basolateral membrane receptors/transporters of the parietal cell or acting indirectly through the other cells of the gastric mucosa, as well as mechanical and chemical stimuli participate in acid secretion physiology (e.g., see recent reviews in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The mechanism of nucleotide release appears to be cell type specific and may involve membrane ion channels, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and exocytotic granule secretion ( 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • CD73
  • In summary, CD73-derived adenosine tonically inhibits active NF-κB in CD4 + T-cells, thereby modulating the release of a broad spectrum of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (physiology.org)
  • Adenosine can be formed from AMP either intracellularly by cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase usually involving tissue hypoxia or extracellularly by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73). (physiology.org)
  • paracrine
  • For example, Pannexin1 (Panx1), which forms predominantly hemichannels, was shown to be involved in paracrine signaling when activated by ATP, UTP, and adenosine. (frontiersin.org)
  • drugs
  • The dose is often decreased in patients on dipyridamole (Persantine) and diazepam (Valium) because adenosine potentiates the effects of these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • caffeine
  • In humans, tolerance to some subjective effects of caffeine may occur, but most of the time, complete tolerance to many effects of caffeine on the central nervous system (CNS) does not occur. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, the reinforcing stimulus functions of caffeine are limited to low or moderate doses, while high doses usually are avoided. (medscape.com)
  • Affecting both the A1 and A2 receptors, albeit with a different potency.Synephrine's role in the LipoGenix Elite fat-burning CYS-TEM is to synergize with Caffeine and Yohimbine to create thermogenesis, which speeds up the body's metabolism to burn through fat stores faster with or without exercise. (lipogenixelite.com)
  • mice
  • The splicing of Adora1 and loss of Adora1 expression on α-cells may explain the hyperglucagonemia observed in prediabetic NOD mice and may contribute to the pathogenesis of human T1D and NOD disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Elevated plasma glucagon levels after a glucose challenge or ingestion of a high-fat diet and increased duration of glucagon release during hyperglycemia have been observed in Adora1 knockout (KO) mice ( 12 - 14 ), suggesting that loss of Adora1 expression in α-cells may contribute to the pathology of NOD disease and human T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We studied the gene and protein expression of Adora1 through the progression of T1D and found that Adora1 expression was gradually diminished in α-cells of NOD mice and human autoantibody-positive (AA + ) and long-term T1D patients as disease progressed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies using cultured human and mouse mast cells, and studies of mice lacking A 2B receptors, suggest that adenosine receptors, specifically the G s -coupled A 2A and A 2B receptors, might provide such a target. (aspetjournals.org)
  • node
  • When it is administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the atrioventricular (AV) node. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria (e.g., atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) or ventricles (e.g., monomorphic ventricular tachycardia) and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not typically converted by adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine slows conduction time through the A-V node, can interrupt the reentry pathways through the A-V node, and can restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including PSVT associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. (drugbank.ca)
  • plays
  • Seminal, important genetic data indicate that adenosine, which is operative via the A2A adenosine receptor, plays critical, nonredundant, autonomous, and autochthonous roles in inhibiting effector functions of activated T cells ( 19 , 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • cascade
  • It is therefore the activity of this ecto-nucleotide cascade that determines whether P2 or P1 receptors are preferentially activated. (physiology.org)
  • stress
  • Adenosine is used as an adjunct to thallous (thallium) chloride TI 201 or Tc99m myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (nuclear stress test) in patients unable to undergo adequate stress testing with exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • the parietal cell of the gastric mucosa is a highly specialized cell that is responsible for the production and secretion of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the gastric lumen and, in humans, also of the Castle's intrinsic factor. (physiology.org)
  • cAMP
  • This is mediated via the A1 receptor, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP and so causing cell hyperpolarization by increasing K+ efflux via inward rectifier K+ channels, subsequently inhibiting Ca2+ current. (wikipedia.org)
  • identify
  • In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. (wikipedia.org)