• secretory
  • The debate continues whether α -cells directly sense and respond to fluctuations in plasma glucose or whether the response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system and/or the paracrine/endocrine effects of secretory products from other islet cell types. (blogspot.com)
  • stomach
  • We defined the spatial and temporal expression of sea urchin orthologs of pancreatic exocrine genes and described a unique population of cells clustered in the upper stomach of the sea urchin embryo where exocrine markers are co-expressed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The enzymes that are secreted in the stomach are called gastric enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are enzymes produced by the stomach and their respective function: Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is produced by the stomach cells called "chief cells" in its inactive form pepsinogen, which is a zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric lipase: Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones or compounds produced by the stomach and their respective function: Hydrochloric acid (HCl): This is in essence positively charged hydrogen atoms (H+), or in lay-terms stomach acid, and is produced by the cells of the stomach called parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic factor (IF): Intrinsic factor is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenal
  • 1. any of the corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex , the major ones being the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and including some androgens, progesterone, and estrogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adrenomedullary h's substances secreted by the adrenal medulla , including epinephrine and norepinephrine . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • proteins
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • results reminiscent of recent experiments performed with human embryonic stem cells (hESC), a renewable source of cells that hold great promise as a potential therapeutic treatment for type 1 diabetes. (jove.com)
  • A loss of functional beta cell mass is central to both major forms of diabetes 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Whereas the declining functional beta cell mass results from an autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes, in type 2 diabetes, this decrement develops from both an inability of beta cells to secrete insulin appropriately and the destruction of beta cells from a cadre of mechanisms. (jove.com)
  • Thus, efforts to restore functional beta cell mass are paramount to the better treatment of and potential cures for diabetes. (jove.com)
  • Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • system
  • Necroptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis are molecular mechanisms that modulate the survival of the pancreatic beta cell, demonstrating the importance of the immune system in glucolipotoxicity processes and the potential role for immunometabolism as another component of what once known as the "ominous octet. (hindawi.com)
  • Virtually all animals have a digestive system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some parts of the digestive system are also part of the excretory system, including the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system which is neuromodulatory. (wikipedia.org)