• Flavonoids
  • Phytochemical technique mainly applies to the quality control of Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine(Indian traditional medicine) or herbal medicine of various chemical components, such as saponins, alkaloids, volatile oils, flavonoids and anthraquinones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis
  • Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSS, the first committed enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, is localized to the root endodermis and cortex adjacent to the phloem in S. vernalis . (wordpress.com)
  • Metabolism
  • Phytochemicals (from Greek phyto, meaning "plant") are chemicals produced by plants through primary or secondary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary metabolism produces a large number of specialized compounds (estimated 200,000) that do not aid in the growth and development of plants but are required for the plant to survive in its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary metabolism is connected to primary metabolism by using building blocks and biosynthetic enzymes derived from primary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized compounds from secondary metabolism are essential for communicating with other organisms in mutualistic (e.g. attraction of beneficial organisms such as pollinators) or antagonistic interactions (e.g. deterrent against herbivores and pathogens). (wikipedia.org)
  • In any case, a good balance between products of primary and secondary metabolism is best for a plant's optimal growth and development as well as for its effective coping with often changing environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into secondary plant metabolism primarily took off in the later half of the 19th century, however, there was still much confusion over what the exact function and usefulness of these compounds were. (wikipedia.org)
  • opium
  • the opium alkaloids are sometimes called "phenanthrenes", for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, alkaloids are sequestered to isolated idioblasts and laticifers in Catarahthus roseus, root endodermis and stem cortex/pith in Thalictrum flavum , and laticifers in opium poppy. (wordpress.com)
  • metabolic
  • Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular precursors, based on the metabolic pathway used to construct the molecule. (blogspot.com)
  • certain
  • When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process. (blogspot.com)
  • form
  • As organic bases, alkaloids form salts with mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and organic acids such as tartaric acid or maleic acid. (blogspot.com)