• severe
  • The jarring of the brain maybe so slight that it only causes temporary dizziness and headache, sometimes it maybe severe to cause a complete loss of consciousness for a period of time. (graduateway.com)
  • Skull
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human brain: Human brain - central organ of the nervous system located in the head of a human being, protected by the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral nervous system - consists of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, where they are not protected by the human vertebral column, skull and the protective blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain resides within the skull, a rigid closed compartment. (graduateway.com)
  • As a result any bleeding or swelling within the skull increases the volume of its contents and thus causing increased intracranial pressure. (graduateway.com)
  • Increased pressure to the brain within the skulls causes a downward or lateral displacement of the brain within the structure of the skull. (graduateway.com)
  • It is caused by increased pressure inside the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • thrombosis
  • A CT scan of the brain demonstrated a comminuted-depressed fracture of the parietal bone in the midline with a rupture of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and secondary thrombosis (figure 1). (bmj.com)
  • occurs
  • In some patients, localized infarction occurs ( Figure 3 ). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The cerebral cells need an uninterrupted blood supply to obtain these nutrients, irreversible damage to the brain and cell death occurs when blood supply has a shortage even for a few minutes. (graduateway.com)
  • It has been found that if a Cushing reflex occurs, brain plateau wave changes can be erased due to disappearance of high ICP. (wikipedia.org)
  • mannitol
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • cerebrospinal
  • The brain roughly floats on top of the ventricular system, a shock absorbing area filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which also connects to and fills the entire Spinal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory
  • In response to rising intracranial pressure (ICP), respiratory cycles change in regularity and rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaerobes often isolated from brain abscesses complicating respiratory and dental infections are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB, including Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides), Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • edema
  • Extra-/intracellular ion-shifts, an excessive glutamate release, an early formation of brain edema and acute vascular and molecular changes have been characterized as such pathophysiological mechanisms ( Sehba and Bederson, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • structures
  • Increased pressure above the tentorium may also involve other midbrain structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying the location of these structures on a damaged brains compared to an unaffected brain is another way of categorizing the severity of the midline shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • herniation
  • They are caused by a traumatic downward displacement of the brainstem with hippocampal gyrus herniation through the tentorial notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may succeed or accompany temporal lobe (uncal) herniation and subfalcian herniation secondary to a supratentorial mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that he had suddenly collapsed and become comatose when he stood up on his last day of life, has been interpreted as brain herniation and Duret haemorrhages. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • Targeted temperature management (TTM) previously known as therapeutic hypothermia or protective hypothermia is an active treatment that tries to achieve and maintain a specific body temperature in a person for a specific duration of time in an effort to improve health outcomes during recovery after a period of stopped blood flow to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduction
  • The results of this study demonstrate for the first time a reduction of PDH activity following SAH, independent of supply of substrates and may be an independent factor contributing to a derangement of oxidative metabolism, failure of oxygen utilization, and secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Cushing reflex classically presents as an increase in systolic and pulse pressure, reduction of the heart rate (bradycardia), and irregular respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • At the stage of encephalitis, antimicrobial therapy and utilization of measures to lower the increase in the intracranial pressure can prevent the formation of an intracranial abscess However, after an abscess has emerged, surgical removal or drainage may be necessary, along with an extended course of antimicrobial therapy (4-8 weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cushing's
  • Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • This decreased flow often causes a reflexive HTN (increase in blood pressure) despite the actual decrease in intravascular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • These recommendations were largely based on two trials from 2002 which showed improved survival and brain function when cooled to 32-34 °C (90-93 °F) after cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • The origin of brain abscess is generally an adjacent chronic ear, mastoid, or sinus infection oropharynx, teeth or lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue plasminog
  • It works by stimulating secondary fibrinolysis by plasmin through infusion of analogs of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the protein that normally activates plasmin. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Human brain List of regions in the human brain Lobes of the brain Brain Basal ganglia Brain stem including Medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons Cerebellum Cerebral cortex Hypothalamus Limbic including amygdala Neuroanatomy Note - in conducting brain research, information "where the other end connects" is critical to understanding neural connections, and ultimately how the brain functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sign is considered ominous because it is commonly associated with a distortion of the brain stem that can cause serious dysfunction evidenced by abnormal posturing and failure of the pupils to constrict in response to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • This is most commonly the result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)