• analyte
  • 12. A method of performing an analysis on multiple samples, comprising performing an analysis on a set of pooled sample obtained by a method according to claim 1, wherein said sample is analyzed for a categorical variable and involves a quantitative measurement of an analyte in said sample. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Single-analyte assays or low-to-mid-plex procedures typically predate the rise of their multiplex versions, which often require specialized technologies or miniaturization to achieve a higher degree of parallelization. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISAs are a type of assay that is not multiplex per se because each assay detects a single analyte, but it is typically parallelized via microtiter plates to achieve high-throughput sample processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • As a discipline, proteomics has moved past rapid protein identification and has developed into a biological assay for quantitative analysis of complex protein samples by comparing protein changes in differently perturbed systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay provides both a qualitative (visible observation of colour gradient) for screening purposes, or quantitative measurement (spectrophotometry) for calculation of commonly accepted metrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the quantitative assay, the dose-response (colour production linked to beta-galactosidase production) of a compound is plotted, with the slope of the initial linear region used as a universal parameter, the SOS-inducing potency (SOSIP), which reflects the ability of a compound to induce the SOS response (measured indirectly through production of beta-galactosidase and the breakdown of a lactose analog). (wikipedia.org)
  • IMC is thus a means for dynamic, quantitative evaluation of the rates and energetics of a broad range of rate processes, including biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoassay
  • Many immunoassay procedures have now been developed which utilize reactions taking place on dry porous carriers such as nitrocellulose membranes through which samples to be analyzed flow by capillary action, the reaction products being detectable either visually or with an instrument such as a reflectometer or fluorometer. (google.com)
  • Mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) is a method that uses antibodies to analyze protein differences in biological samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay Immunoassay Immunoscreening SISCAPA Radioimmunoassay Mass Spectrometry Nelson, Randall W. (wikipedia.org)
  • sorbent
  • Each disk consists of a solid sorbent sandwiched between two polyethersoulfone (PES) microporous membranes which are then compressed between two stainless steel rings which expose a sampling area. (wikipedia.org)
  • A standard POCIS disk consists of a sampling surface area to sorbent mass ratio of approximately 180 cm2g. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Many of our assays are reactive with rodent proteins and were developed with rodent tissues (mouse and rat). (abcam.com)
  • This is the basis of the Bradford assay which is a protein determination method that involves the coomasie brilliant blue dye binding to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each method has its strengths and weaknesses but they all struggle with intrinsically disordered proteins without any clearly defined tertiary structure as the essence of a thermal shift assay is measuring the temperature at which a protein goes from well-defined structure to disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome-the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins-by applying molecular biology to medical testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncovalent bonding is critical in maintaining the 3D structure of large molecules, such as proteins and is involved in many biological processes in which large molecules bind specifically but transiently to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • analytical
  • Through the calculation of the intermediate SOS-induction factor (SOSIF), which can be plotted against dilution in the same manner in order to give an illustration of the dose-response without analytical measurements of samples beforehand. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Although much valuable work has been published using fluorimetric assays to measure total catecholamine concentrations, the method is too non-specific and insensitive to accurately determine the very small quantities of epinephrine in plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first passive sampling devices were developed in the 1970s to determine concentrations of contaminants in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test is performed over a few hours in columns of a 96-well microplate with increasing concentrations of test samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the chemical tested may inhibit protein synthesis at higher concentrations, which would lead to an underestimation of B-galactosidase induction, alkaline phosphatase is assayed simultaneously with β-galactosidase in order to scale the data to survivability of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • analytes
  • The devices are especially useful for identifying analytes in small volumes of whole blood samples utilizing one membrane principally for separating particles such as red blood cells from plasma and a second membrane as the site for reactions to identify the analytes. (google.com)
  • Passive sampling techniques have been able to provide a time-integrated sample of water contamination with low detection limits and in situ extraction of analytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multiplex assay is a type of assay used in research to simultaneously measure multiple analytes (dozens or more) in a single run/cycle of the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to perform such multiplex assay experiments measuring large numbers of biomolecular analytes has been facilitated by the completion of the human genome sequence and that of many other model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • As with other bacterial gentoxicity and mutagenicity assays, compounds requiring metabolic activation for activity can be investigated with the addition of S9 microsomal rat liver extract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycarbonate (PC) filters have had the most accurate bacterial sampling success when compared to other PC filter options. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • These robots may be liquid handlers which aspirate or dispense liquid samples from and to these plates, or "plate movers" which transport them between instruments, plate stackers which store microplates during these processes, plate hotels for longer term storage, plate washers for processing plates, plate thermal sealers for applying heat seals, de-sealers for removing heat seals, or microplate incubators to ensure constant temperature during testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation, treatment and modeling of biological processes, using techniques and tools of applied mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • The POCIS sampler consists of an array of sampling disks mounted on a support rod. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the simplest assays consists of monitoring the expression of an SOS gene by means of fusion with lacZ, the structural gene for E. coli β-galactosidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • The implementation of this method in the study of complex biological systems would have an immediate impact in academic and medical research. (montana.edu)
  • 11. A method of performing an analysis on multiple samples, comprising pooling said samples according to a method of claim 1 to provide a pooled sample and performing said analysis on said pooled sample. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. Method according to claim 12, further comprising deducing from the measurement the contribution of the individual samples in said pool of samples. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The grab sampling method is associated with many disadvantages that can be resolved by passive sampling techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been shown that with 4 controls per case and/or stratified sampling of controls, relatively little efficiency may be lost, depending on the method of estimation used. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Perform a BCA™​ protein assay to determine protein concentration. (abcam.com)
  • This paper explores the use of the dielectrophoretic force to manipulate DNA, Bacillus globigii spores, and Erwinia herbicola bacteria to provide concentration and purification as part of the sample handling functions in biological monitoring equipment. (unt.edu)
  • NOAA scientists use SQGs as a way to estimate if a concentration of contaminant in a sediment sample may have toxicological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect can interfere with the estimation of protein concentration using the Bradford assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • aerosols
  • Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Therefore, we have developed assays using a non-denaturing detergent, n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside (CAS# 69227-93-6), which is commonly referred to as lauryl maltoside. (abcam.com)
  • Amplification and hybridization of DNA are commonly used techniques to verify the presence of a specific DNA sequence in a test sample. (unt.edu)
  • NOAA originally calculated ERL/ERMs using existing toxicity data compiled from completed toxicity assays with varying endpoints, including effects on commonly tested organisms, particularly at sensitive life stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological systems, the analogous terms of host and guest are commonly referred to as enzyme and substrate respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • specimens
  • In biological specimens containing a growth medium, appearance over time of a detectable and rising heat flow signal is a simple general indicator of the presence of some type of replicating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Using data already collected ("data mining") has the advantage of being able to quickly and inexpensively make an assessment with a large dataset that would otherwise require much more time-consuming and costly specific toxicity assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most aquatic monitoring programs rely on collecting individual samples, often called grab samples, at a specific time. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • This test was developed as a practical complement or alternative to the traditional Ames test assay for genotoxicity, which involves growing bacteria on agar plates and comparing natural mutation rates to mutation rates of bacteria exposed to potentially mutagenic compounds or samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • contamination
  • Automatic sample handling to concentrate and purify sample prior to amplification is desirable both from the cost standpoint and from the standpoint of reducing the possibility of sample contamination. (unt.edu)
  • Automation and sample barcoding maximise throughput and reduce the possibility of error or contamination during manual handling and results reporting. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Also, lab analysis of the sample can only provide a snapshot of contaminant levels at the time of collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for successful MS analysis the peptide should be enriched within the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • This benefit is pronounced when the covariate of interest is biological, since assessments such as gene expression profiling are expensive, and because the quantity of blood available for such analysis is often limited, making it a valuable resource that should not be used unnecessarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the covariate is not measured for all participants, the nested case control model is both less expensive than a full cohort analysis and more efficient than taking a simple random sample from the full cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of a nested case control model must take into account the way in which controls are sampled from the cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preservation of the sample before analysis is critical. (wikipedia.org)
  • capability
  • In our recent work, we found that coating a thin layer of vancomycin on a SERS substrate drastically increases its capability to capture bacteria in the blood samples without introducing significant spectral interference to SERS spectrum of the captured bacteria. (nanowerk.com)
  • experimental
  • Pasteur also developed experimental procedures for sampling bioaerosols and showed that more microbial activity occurred at lower altitudes and decreased at higher altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • volumes
  • When contaminants are present in trace amounts, grab sampling may require the collection of large volumes of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology is simple, fast and insensitive to variations in sample volumes, and the useful temperature and pH range is 30- 80°C and 5-11 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Samples for Proteomics contain a myriad of peptide sequences, the sequence of interest may be highly represented or of low abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • A critical step in performing any biological assay is preparing the test sample. (abcam.com)
  • The test is a colorimetric assay which measures the expression of genes induced by genotoxic agents in Escherichia coli, by means of a fusion with the structural gene for β-galactosidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The problems arise from 5,5-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), which is unstable, interacts with free sulfhydryl groups in the sample, and may affect cholinesterase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After allowing time for protein synthesis, β-galactosidase activity is assayed using a simple colorimetric assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • The USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) is a self-proclaimed international leader in the field of passive sampling. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological, biomedical and biotechnology research. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • The resulting reduction in manual operations and reduced reagent use can lead to significant cost savings in performing biological tests. (unt.edu)
  • simple
  • For example, because cell-free nucleic acids exist in human plasma, a simple blood sample can be enough to sample genetic information from tumours, transplants or an unborn fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • If, on the other hand, one is interested in the association between gene expression and breast cancer incidence, it would be very expensive and possibly wasteful of precious blood specimen to assay all 89,000 women without breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Ways to account for the random sampling include conditional logistic regression, and using inverse probability weighting to adjust for missing covariates among those who are not selected into the study. (wikipedia.org)
  • This randomly selected control sample could, by chance, include some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Using this assay, we show an increase in the mass level of PtdIns3 P in mouse and human platelets following stimulation, loss of this lipid in Vps34-deficient yeasts and its relative enrichment in early endosomes isolated from BHK cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Susceptible cells are inoculated with serial logarithmic dilutions of samples in a 96-well plate. (wikipedia.org)