• salts
  • The consequences of salinity are detrimental effects on plant growth and yield damage to infrastructure (roads, bricks, corrosion of pipes and cables) reduction of water quality for users, sedimentation problems soil erosion ultimately, when crops are too strongly affected by the amounts of salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • about 1 tablespoon of salt for every 4-5 gallon of water is a good rule of thumb even if you would need to messure the salinity to be sure. (aquaticcommunity.com)
  • Although damages due to salinity are principally experienced in the lower basin, implications of the Clean Water Act make solving the problem a matter of concern for the upper basin as well. (asce.org)
  • Salinity in the ocean is defined as the grams of salt per 1000 grams of water. (nasa.gov)
  • One gram of salt per 1000 grams of water is defined as one practical salinity unit or one PSU. (nasa.gov)
  • Salinity is the key to understanding the global water cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • As salinity also increases as evaporation occurs, we can generalize the relationship to state that water with an increased 18 O to 16 O ratio is saltier than water with a lower 18 O to 16 O ratio. (classzone.com)
  • Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue energy and osmotic energy, is the energy obtainable from the difference in salt concentration between two feed solutions, typically sea water and river water. (worldcat.org)
  • ïŽSustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients is an essential text for R&D professionals in the energy & water industry interested in salinity gradient power and researchers in academia from post-graduate level upwards. (worldcat.org)
  • salinity A measure of the total quantity of dissolved solids in water, in parts per thousand (per mille) by weight, when all organic matter has been completely oxidized, all carbonate has been converted to oxide, and bromide and iodide to chloride. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The salinity of ocean water is in the range 33-38 parts per thousand, with an average of 35 parts per thousand. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other methods for determining the salinity of a water sample are described below. (hawaii.edu)
  • Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conceptually the salinity is the quantity of dissolved salt content of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity processes extend from local to regional scales and are driven by imbalances in the water budget that result, primarily, from agriculturally driven landscape change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceasing the removal of deeply rooted vegetation in order to moderate unbalanced groundwater recharge and the replanting of deeply rooted vegetation such as Eucalyptus and salt tolerant species in regions where salinity is present, will start to alleviate the salt and ground water discharge problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity is classified as a dissolved salt content of a substance like soil or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several models have been proposed to estimate the dielectric constant of sea water given its salinity and temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many sources of error associated with measurements of sea surface salinity: Radiometer Antenna System pointing Roughness (of sea surface) Solar Galactic Rain (total liquid water) Ionosphere Atmosphere(other) Sea surface temperature Antenna gain near land and ice Model function Most of the error sources on the previous list stem from either standard instrument errors (Antenna, System Pointing, etc.) or noise from external sources measurement signal (Solar, Galactic, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a T-S diagram, rather than plotting each water property as a separate "profile," with pressure or depth as the vertical coordinate, potential temperature (on the vertical axis) is plotted versus salinity (on the horizontal axis). (wikipedia.org)
  • As long as it remains isolated from the surface, where heat or fresh water can be gained or lost, and in the absence of mixing with other water masses, a water parcel's potential temperature and salinity are conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Salinity Laboratory is a National Laboratory for research on salt-affected soil-plant-water systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESA's water mission SMOS European Space Agency SMOS Project Team, The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission Archived 2006-05-06 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SCA was an Act to authorize the construction, operation, and maintenance of certain works in the Colorado River Basin to control the salinity of water delivered to users in the United States and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.5%, at or below which water is considered fresh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water salinity often varies by location and season, particularly with hypersaline lakes in arid areas, so the salinity figures in the table below should be interpreted as an approximate indicator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyhaline is a salinity category term applied to brackish estuaries and other water bodies with a salinity of between 18 and 30 ppt (parts per thousand). (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater
  • Groundwater salinity in the sandly alluvial aquifers of Cooper Creek are stronly influenced by their proximity to Billabongs. (carleton.edu)
  • Environment.nsw.gov.au, 2013) Groundwater recharge occurs naturally, being a key process in the development of salinity, however land clearing accelerates this development as the once present deep-rooted plants do not use excess runoff, and it now seeps past the roots zone to enter the groundwater system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance
  • The existence of two relatively independent systems of adaptation to extreme (resistance level) and moderate (tolerance level) changes of environmental salinity was shown. (mendeley.com)
  • The efficiency of resistance and tolerance adaptations to salinity changes may vary in different species and in different colour phenotypes of the same species (intrapopulational polymorphism). (mendeley.com)
  • Parasites (trematodes) may suppress the resistance of the mollusc-host to extreme salinity changes without effecting the hosts capacity for adaptive changes in salinity tolerance. (mendeley.com)
  • density
  • Sea surface density, a driving force in ocean circulation and a function of temperature and salinity will finally be measurable every month on a global scale. (nasa.gov)
  • Silicon in the form of silicic acid, which usually appears as a neutral molecule in the pH range of most natural waters, may also be included for some purposes (e.g., when salinity/density relationships are being investigated). (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity in combination with temperature determine ocean circulation by defining its density and hence thermohaline circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, an interstate organization, was created in 1972 to address the problem. (asce.org)
  • occur
  • Clearing as little as 25% of a catchment can cause salinity to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current levels of salinity in Victoria are relatively small, with the main impact expected to occur in high risk areas in the coming years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine
  • A review on salinity adaptation of marine molluscs based on mainly Russian scientific literature is presented. (mendeley.com)
  • control
  • The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93-320, and the laws authorizing three other conservation cost-sharing programs were begun June 24, 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act (SCA), Public Law 93-320, was enacted 24 June 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation administers its own Colorado River Salinity control Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • The Eastern Mallee and the Western Mallee of Western Australia are areas that are prone to salinity with little remedial action being undertaken to rectify the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • abdita, commonly known as the Remote Thorny Lignum, is a critically endangered species due to its intolerance to salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • Earlier suggestions from Denizot in 1957 and Ruggieri in 1967 proposed that this layer was of Late Miocene age, and the same Ruggieri coined the term Messinian Salinity Crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) performs four functions for the GTSPP: Maintains the global database of temperature and salinity data and provides online access to the data. (wikipedia.org)
  • reasonably
  • Different practical definitions of salinity result from different attempts to account for these problems, to different levels of precision, while still remaining reasonably easy to use. (wikipedia.org)
  • provides
  • Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients provides a comprehensive review of resources, technologies and applications in this area of fast-growing interest. (worldcat.org)