• mannitol
  • Background and Purpose -The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate a protocol with hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HS-HES) and mannitol in stroke patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP). (ahajournals.org)
  • THE hyperosmolar solutions mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) have both been used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure in critical care units. (asahq.org)
  • 8,9 Although the results of these studies provided valuable clinical data, they did not address the question of comparative efficacy between HS and mannitol because the study designs did not control for equiosmolar concentrations of the two solutions. (asahq.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to compare the effect of equiosmolar equivolemic solutions of mannitol and HS on intraoperative brain relaxation as the primary endpoint of the study, and brain oxygen metabolism and electrolyte changes as secondary endpoints, in patients undergoing craniotomy for elective and urgent neurosurgical procedures. (asahq.org)
  • Commonly used osmotic agents are urea, glycerol, mannitol and Hypertonic Saline. (wikipedia.org)
  • High intake of sodium Sodium and water retention: Heart failure Liver cirrhosis Nephrotic syndrome Corticosteroid therapy Hyperaldosteronism Low protein intake Fluid shift into the intravascular space: Fluid remobilization after burn treatment Administration of hypertonic fluids, e.g. mannitol or hypertonic saline solution Administration of plasma proteins, such as albumin Treatment includes diuretics, such as furosemide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vacuoles play a role in turgor pressure when water leaves the cell due to hyperosmotic solutions containing solutes such as mannitol, sorbitol, and sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • liter
  • Whereas osmolality (with an "ℓ") is a measure of the osmoles (Osm) of solute per kilogram of solvent (osmol/kg or Osm/kg), osmolarity (with an "r") is defined as the number of osmoles of solute per liter (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). As such, larger numbers indicate a greater concentration of solutes in the plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Thus, saline hypertonic solutions have unique properties to disinfect the inflamed organs and tissues.Interestingly, cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, tissue cells) remain intact.In place of salt absorbed liquid enters a new, healthy intercellular fluid.Thus, fluid is updated. (mednotess.com)
  • whereas
  • For a given solution, osmolarity is slightly less than osmolality, because the total solvent weight (the divisor used for osmolality) excludes the weight of any solutes, whereas the total solution volume (used for osmolarity) includes solute content. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • n a hypertonic saline solution (0.9% more), the water will come out of it, the cell is wrinkled. (mednotess.com)
  • Today, doctors recommend the use of dressings impregnated with hypertonic saline.Salt draws out the water from the tissue, thereby removing puffiness and bringing together all the liquid products of pathological processes.There are several indications for the use of salt and dressings with it. (mednotess.com)
  • Saline is also used in I.V. therapy, intravenously supplying extra water to rehydrate patients or supplying the daily water and salt needs ("maintenance" needs) of a patient who is unable to take them by mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with hypernatremia and euvolemia, free water can be replaced using either 5% D/W or 0.45% saline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmolysis is the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the plant cell loses water and hence turgor pressure by plasmolysis: pressure decreases to the point where the protoplasm of the cell peels away from the cell wall, leaving gaps between the cell wall and the membrane and making the plant cell shrink and crumple. (wikipedia.org)
  • osmolarity
  • Even though these values are presented in different units, when there is a small amount of solute compared to total volume of solution, the absolute values of osmolality vs. osmolarity are very close. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • It is induced in the laboratory by immersing cells in strong saline or sugar (sucrose) solutions to cause exosmosis, often using Elodea plants or onion epidermal cells, which have colored cell sap so that the process is clearly visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugar
  • Administering a 5% sugar solution peri- and postoperatively usually achieves a good balance between starvation reactions and hyperglycemia caused by sympathetic activation. (wikipedia.org)