• DTaP
  • The authors did a retrospective study of data from seven managed care organizations that are part of the Vaccine Safety Datalink project and compared the incidence of seizures in "exposure" periods (0 to 3 days after DTaP vaccination) and control periods in children aged 6 weeks to 23 months. (umn.edu)
  • World Health Organ
  • Sample vaccination schedules discussed by the World Health Organization show a developed country using a schedule which extends over the first five years of a child's life and uses vaccines which cost over $700 including administration costs while a developing country uses a schedule providing vaccines in the first 9 months of life and costing only $25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization monitors vaccination schedules across the world, noting what vaccines are included in each country's program, the coverage rates achieved and various auditing measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • the World Health Organization has concluded that there is no evidence of toxicity from thiomersal in vaccines and no reason on safety grounds to change to more expensive single-dose administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization coordinated the effort to eradicate smallpox globally through vaccination, the last naturally occurring case of smallpox was in Somalia in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants
  • In a recent article in the journal Pediatrics, Dr. Paul Offit and colleagues estimated that infants have the capacity to respond to about 10,000 vaccines at any given time and that no vaccine could "use up" their immune system. (examiner.net)
  • The more people who get immunized, the more people such as infants and the elderly who aren't eligible for the vaccine are protected by what's referred to as the 'herd immunity. (examiner.net)
  • A review of the data showed that while the vaccine schedule for infants did not exceed FDA, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), or WHO guidelines on mercury exposure, it could have exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the first six months of life, depending on the vaccine formulation and the weight of the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • thiomersal
  • Thiomersal was used as a preservative (bactericide) so that multidose vials of vaccines could be used instead of single-dose vials, which are more expensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other vaccine preservatives used at the time, thiomersal does not reduce the potency of the vaccines that it protects. (wikipedia.org)
  • other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multi-dose versions of the influenza vaccines Fluvirin and Fluzone can contain up to 25 micrograms of mercury per dose from thiomersal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Nations Environment Program backed away from an earlier proposal of adding thiomersal in vaccines to the list of banned compounds in a treaty aimed at reducing exposure to mercury worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citing medical and scientific consensus that thiomersal in vaccines posed no safety issues, but that eliminating the preservative in multi-dose vaccines, primarily used in developing countries, will lead to high cost and a requirement for refrigeration which the developing countries can ill afford, the UN's final decision is to exclude thiomersal from the treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thousands of lawsuits have been filed in the U.S. to seek damages from alleged toxicity from vaccines, including those purportedly caused by thiomersal. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 mandated a review and risk assessment of all mercury-containing food and drugs, vaccine manufacturers responded to FDA requests made in December 1998 and April 1999 to provide detailed information about the thiomersal content of their preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a wide range of opinions on the urgency and significance of the safety of thiomersal, with some toxicologists suggesting there was no clear evidence that thiomersal was harmful and other participants like Neal Halsey, director of the Institute of Vaccine Safety at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, strongly advocating removal of thiomersal from vaccines due to possible safety risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunizations
  • Immunizations also help people who cannot be vaccinated or who do not respond to vaccines if those around them are vaccinated. (catholicdigest.com)
  • A visit to a clinician for travel-related immunizations should be seen as an opportunity to bring an incompletely vaccinated person up-to-date on his or her routine vaccinations. (cdc.gov)
  • compulsory
  • There was legitimate concern from supporters of vaccination about its safety and efficacy, but this was overshadowed by general condemnation, particularly when legislation started to introduce compulsory vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compulsory vaccination is a difficult policy issue, requiring authorities to balance public health with individual liberty: "Vaccination is unique among de facto mandatory requirements in the modern era, requiring individuals to accept the injection of a medicine or medicinal agent into their bodies, and it has provoked a spirited opposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • preservatives
  • Vaccine manufacturers have used preservatives to prevent microbial growth during the manufacturing process or when packaged as "multi-dose" products to allow for multiple punctures of the same vial to dispense multiple vaccinations with less fear of contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • herd immunity
  • Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governments often allow exemptions to mandatory vaccinations for religious or philosophical reasons, but decreased rates of vaccination may cause loss of herd immunity, substantially increasing risks even to vaccinated individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • travelers
  • Additionally, some routine vaccines are recommended at earlier ages for international travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for travelers are not always the same as routine recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, yellow fever vaccination is on the routine vaccine schedule of French Guiana, is recommended in certain regions of Brazil but in the United States is only given to travelers heading to countries with a history of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • Analyses showed that routine childhood immunization among members of the 2009 US birth cohort will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively. (aappublications.org)
  • In 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following an urban renewal program that displaced many poor, a government program of mandatory smallpox vaccination triggered the Vaccine Revolt, several days of rioting with considerable property damage and a number of deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th century
  • William Rowley published illustrations of deformities allegedly produced by vaccination, lampooned in James Gillray's famous caricature depicted on this page, and Benjamin Moseley likened cowpox to syphilis, starting a controversy that would last into the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Rational individuals will attempt to minimize the risk of illness, and will seek vaccination for themselves or their children if they perceive a high threat of disease and a low risk to vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • opposition
  • As with variolation, there was some religious opposition to vaccination, although this was balanced to some extent by support from clergymen, such as Reverend Robert Ferryman, a friend of Jenner's, and Rowland Hill, who not only preached in its favour but also performed vaccination themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This opposition began with the first vaccinations, has not ceased, and probably never will. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • 7 The study used consistent methods and assumptions for each vaccine assessed and thus provided comprehensive economic information of uniform consistency for making US vaccine policy and immunization program decisions. (aappublications.org)
  • children
  • From both direct cost and societal perspectives, vaccinating children as recommended with these vaccines results in substantial cost savings. (aappublications.org)
  • Since then, vaccination coverage has plummeted to 56.2 percent for Missouri children from 19 to 35 months according to survey data from the CDC. (examiner.net)
  • Because of the study, many British parents have refused to let their children get the vaccine. (catholicdigest.com)
  • Children are given vaccines at a young age because this is when they are most likely to get the disease. (catholicdigest.com)
  • By two years of age, U.S. children receive as many as 24 vaccine injections, and might receive up to five shots during one visit to the doctor. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • organizations
  • In addition to the 15 voting members, the committee includes 8 ex officio members representing federal agencies and 35 nonvoting representatives of liaison organizations with broad responsibilities for vaccine development, administration of vaccines to various segments of the population, and operation of immunization programs. (cdc.gov)
  • depend
  • Recommendations for specific vaccines related to travel will depend on itinerary, duration of travel, and host factors. (cdc.gov)
  • coverage
  • However, if a vaccination program successfully reduces the disease threat, it may reduce the perceived risk of disease enough so that an individual's optimal strategy is to encourage everyone but their family to be vaccinated, or (more generally) to refuse vaccination at coverage levels below those optimal for the community. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • The use of combination vaccine products means that, as of 2013[update], the United Kingdom's immunization program consists of 9 injections by the age of two, rather than 22 if vaccination for each disease was given as a separate injection. (wikipedia.org)