• doses
  • Unsolicited non-serious adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) will be collected from Visit 1 to Visit 2, or to Visit 3 for those subjects receiving 2 doses of study vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The text and many tables of this publication present recommendations for the use, number of doses, dose intervals, adverse reactions, precautions, and contraindications for vaccines and toxoids that may be indicated for travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • Guidance includes scheduling of vaccine doses, specific risk groups for whom vaccination is recommended, and vaccine contraindications and precautions. (cdc.gov)
  • A vaccination schedule is a series of vaccinations, including the timing of all doses, which may be either recommended or compulsory, depending on the country of residence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many vaccines require multiple doses for maximum effectiveness, either to produce sufficient initial immune response or to boost response that fades over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • Sample vaccination schedules discussed by the World Health Organization show a developed country using a schedule which extends over the first five years of a child's life and uses vaccines which cost over $700 including administration costs while a developing country uses a schedule providing vaccines in the first 9 months of life and costing only $25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization monitors vaccination schedules across the world, noting what vaccines are included in each country's program, the coverage rates achieved and various auditing measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • the World Health Organization has concluded that there is no evidence of toxicity from thiomersal in vaccines and no reason on safety grounds to change to more expensive single-dose administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization coordinated the effort to eradicate smallpox globally through vaccination, the last naturally occurring case of smallpox was in Somalia in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants
  • In a recent article in the journal Pediatrics, Dr. Paul Offit and colleagues estimated that infants have the capacity to respond to about 10,000 vaccines at any given time and that no vaccine could "use up" their immune system. (examiner.net)
  • The more people who get immunized, the more people such as infants and the elderly who aren't eligible for the vaccine are protected by what's referred to as the 'herd immunity. (examiner.net)
  • A review of the data showed that while the vaccine schedule for infants did not exceed FDA, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), or WHO guidelines on mercury exposure, it could have exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the first six months of life, depending on the vaccine formulation and the weight of the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxoids
  • For specific vaccines and toxoids, additional details on background, adverse reactions, precautions, and contraindications, refer to the respective ACIP recommendations ( www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html ). (cdc.gov)
  • ACIP
  • Update: ACIP Recommendations for the Use of Quadrivalent Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV4) - United States, 2018-19 Influenza Season. (bioportfolio.com)
  • ACIP recommendations are based on scientific evidence of benefits (disease immunity) and risks (vaccine adverse reactions) and, where few or no data are available, on expert opinion. (cdc.gov)
  • thiomersal
  • Unlike other vaccine preservatives used at the time, thiomersal does not reduce the potency of the vaccines that it protects. (wikipedia.org)
  • other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Nations Environment Program backed away from an earlier proposal of adding thiomersal in vaccines to the list of banned compounds in a treaty aimed at reducing exposure to mercury worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thousands of lawsuits have been filed in the U.S. to seek damages from alleged toxicity from vaccines, including those purportedly caused by thiomersal. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 mandated a review and risk assessment of all mercury-containing food and drugs, vaccine manufacturers responded to FDA requests made in December 1998 and April 1999 to provide detailed information about the thiomersal content of their preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a wide range of opinions on the urgency and significance of the safety of thiomersal, with some toxicologists suggesting there was no clear evidence that thiomersal was harmful and other participants like Neal Halsey, director of the Institute of Vaccine Safety at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, strongly advocating removal of thiomersal from vaccines due to possible safety risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunizations
  • Immunizations also help people who cannot be vaccinated or who do not respond to vaccines if those around them are vaccinated. (catholicdigest.com)
  • A visit to a clinician for travel-related immunizations should be seen as an opportunity to bring an incompletely vaccinated person up-to-date on his or her routine vaccinations. (cdc.gov)
  • compulsory
  • There was legitimate concern from supporters of vaccination about its safety and efficacy, but this was overshadowed by general condemnation, particularly when legislation started to introduce compulsory vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compulsory vaccination is a difficult policy issue, requiring authorities to balance public health with individual liberty: "Vaccination is unique among de facto mandatory requirements in the modern era, requiring individuals to accept the injection of a medicine or medicinal agent into their bodies, and it has provoked a spirited opposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • preservatives
  • Vaccine manufacturers have used preservatives to prevent microbial growth during the manufacturing process or when packaged as "multi-dose" products to allow for multiple punctures of the same vial to dispense multiple vaccinations with less fear of contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • All participants will receive a 0.5-mL intramuscular dose of their assigned vaccine at Visit 1. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A dose of herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine is recommended for adults aged ≥60 years. (cdc.gov)
  • herd immunity
  • Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governments often allow exemptions to mandatory vaccinations for religious or philosophical reasons, but decreased rates of vaccination may cause loss of herd immunity, substantially increasing risks even to vaccinated individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • travelers
  • Additionally, some routine vaccines are recommended at earlier ages for international travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for travelers are not always the same as routine recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, yellow fever vaccination is on the routine vaccine schedule of French Guiana, is recommended in certain regions of Brazil but in the United States is only given to travelers heading to countries with a history of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Vaccine was maintained initially through arm-to-arm transfer and later through production on the skin of animals, and bacteriological sterility was impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th century
  • William Rowley published illustrations of deformities allegedly produced by vaccination, lampooned in James Gillray's famous caricature depicted on this page, and Benjamin Moseley likened cowpox to syphilis, starting a controversy that would last into the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • Analyses showed that routine childhood immunization among members of the 2009 US birth cohort will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively. (aappublications.org)
  • In 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following an urban renewal program that displaced many poor, a government program of mandatory smallpox vaccination triggered the Vaccine Revolt, several days of rioting with considerable property damage and a number of deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Rational individuals will attempt to minimize the risk of illness, and will seek vaccination for themselves or their children if they perceive a high threat of disease and a low risk to vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • children
  • From both direct cost and societal perspectives, vaccinating children as recommended with these vaccines results in substantial cost savings. (aappublications.org)
  • Since then, vaccination coverage has plummeted to 56.2 percent for Missouri children from 19 to 35 months according to survey data from the CDC. (examiner.net)
  • Because of the study, many British parents have refused to let their children get the vaccine. (catholicdigest.com)
  • Children are given vaccines at a young age because this is when they are most likely to get the disease. (catholicdigest.com)
  • By two years of age, U.S. children receive as many as 24 vaccine injections, and might receive up to five shots during one visit to the doctor. (wikipedia.org)
  • opposition
  • As with variolation, there was some religious opposition to vaccination, although this was balanced to some extent by support from clergymen, such as Reverend Robert Ferryman, a friend of Jenner's, and Rowland Hill, who not only preached in its favour but also performed vaccination themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This opposition began with the first vaccinations, has not ceased, and probably never will. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • 7 The study used consistent methods and assumptions for each vaccine assessed and thus provided comprehensive economic information of uniform consistency for making US vaccine policy and immunization program decisions. (aappublications.org)
  • infection
  • A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • depend
  • Recommendations for specific vaccines related to travel will depend on itinerary, duration of travel, and host factors. (cdc.gov)
  • administration
  • In addition to the 15 voting members, the committee includes 8 ex officio members representing federal agencies and 35 nonvoting representatives of liaison organizations with broad responsibilities for vaccine development, administration of vaccines to various segments of the population, and operation of immunization programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Safety
  • Some parents still question vaccine safety because the media gives false claims a lot of attention, and the Internet has wrong information that is easy to find. (catholicdigest.com)
  • coverage
  • However, if a vaccination program successfully reduces the disease threat, it may reduce the perceived risk of disease enough so that an individual's optimal strategy is to encourage everyone but their family to be vaccinated, or (more generally) to refuse vaccination at coverage levels below those optimal for the community. (wikipedia.org)