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  • impairment
  • A study conducted by Csabi, Benedk, Janacesk, Katona and Nemeth looked at the impairment of declarative and nondeclarative learning when a child is sleep deprived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). (hindawi.com)
  • This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment. (jove.com)
  • hippocampus
  • Using an artificial grammar paradigm, we show by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging that the brain dissociates the two mechanisms: the left anterior hippocampus supports similarity-based learning, whereas the left ventral premotor cortex is selectively engaged by abstract rule processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • Following work showing that interleaved practice of tasks is beneficial to learning, we have found in previous work using the SRT task that presenting sequences in an interleaved order (e.g. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Declarative Learning can be associated with tasks that require a greater amount of attention, such as learning in school. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research focusing on children has also looked at different ways of utilizing declarative learning when it comes to memorizing tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test battery was composed of an expressive vocabulary test, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming tasks, words and pseudowords spelling, and written text composition using a visual stimulus as a starting point. (scielo.br)
  • Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. (jove.com)
  • Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased work with amnesic patients led to the finding that they were able to retain and learn tasks other than motor skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of the brains of subjects exposed to thirty-five hours of sleep deprivation indicate that sleep deprivation is related to increases in prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe activation during tasks that combine verbal learning and arithmetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non sleep-deprived individuals involved in verbal learning and arithmetic tasks the anterior cingulate cortex and the right prefrontal cortex are active. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Memory, the cognitive process whereby experiences, learning and recognition are recalled, is a product of brain plasticity, the structural changes within synapses that create associations between stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • REM sleep is also thought to play a role in the cognitive development of infants and children as they spend much more of their sleep in REM periods opposed to adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state from normal conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuropsychological tests can measure different cognitive domains (e.g., language, learning, and memory) and subdomains (e.g., long-term memory and recognition memory) [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Two discoveries that would later play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain largely responsible for language production, and Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be mostly responsible for comprehension of language. (wikipedia.org)
  • memory
  • Episodic memory and semantic memory are a further division of declarative information. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two ways to learn a telephone number: memorize it using your declarative memory, or use it many times to create a habit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research indicates declarative and habit memory compete with each other during distraction[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study compared the effects of S 18986, a positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors, to those of donepezil a cholinesterase inhibitor on memory impairments induced by ageing in a contextual serial discrimination (CSD) task in middle-aged mice. (springer.com)
  • We showed that placebo-middle-aged mice (14-15 months old) and placebo-aged subjects (19-20 months old) exhibited a severe memory deficit for the first but not the second discrimination, which was due to an increase in interference, as compared with placebo-treated young mice (5 months old). (springer.com)
  • Eichenbaum H (2000) A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory. (springer.com)
  • Francia N, Cirulli F, Chiarotti F, Antonelli A, Aloe L, Alleva E (2006) Spatial memory deficits in middle-aged mice correlate with lower exploratory activity and a subordinate status: role of hippocampal neurotrophins. (springer.com)
  • Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency. (hindawi.com)
  • Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3×Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. (jove.com)
  • The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3×Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies. (jove.com)
  • Patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimers type express less serotonin 4 receptors (5-HTR(4)), but whether an absence of these receptors modifies learning and memory is unexplored. (jove.com)
  • In this experiment we present a technique to measure learning and memory. (jove.com)
  • Trace fear conditioning has been successfully used to detect subtle learning and memory deficits and enhancements in mice that are not found with other fear conditioning methods. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, other fear conditioning testing is needed to examine amygdala-dependent learning and memory effects, such as through the delay fear conditioning. (jove.com)
  • This process is thought to form an integral component of memory and learning. (wikibooks.org)
  • By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. (jove.com)
  • These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. (jove.com)
  • The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). (jove.com)
  • It is also known to play a role in the processing of and memory for emotional events. (wikipedia.org)
  • skill
  • The cerebellum has been shown to be important for skill learning, including the learning of motor sequences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The authors concluded that while distraction may not decrease the level of learning, it can result in a reduced ability to flexibly use that knowledge Declarative learning is an important skill that we use to acquire new information, such as in education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skill acquisition is a form of motor learning that may provide key insights into the aging brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although motor learning broadly refers to improvement in the performance of sensory-guided motor behavior due to practice ( Krakauer and Mazzoni, 2011 ), skill acquisition (or skill learning) is a specific form of motor learning that depends more on success-based exploration and multiple attempts of various movement strategies, rather than error-based adaptive processes in response to reoccurring perturbations (i.e., motor adaptation). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to other cross-sectional studies of skill acquisition between younger vs. older adults, we have recently discovered that within samples of healthy older adults, chronological age itself has a minimal effect on performing and learning an upper extremity motor skill. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies involving sleep deprived subjects' performance on choice reaction time tests, in which response inhibition, task shifting skill and task strategy were involved, have been conducted and analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • memories
  • Generally, declarative memories are believed to be enhanced by slow-wave sleep, while non-declarative memories are enhanced by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, although there are some inconsistencies among experimental results. (wikipedia.org)
  • These memories play an important role in deciding whether or not a human interacts with another in the future, as they contribute to the construction of a person's reputation. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Franco, Gaillard, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz ( Behavior Research Methods , 47 , 1393-1403, 2015 ), in a study on statistical learning employing the click-detection paradigm, conclude that more needs to be known about how this paradigm interacts with statistical learning and speech perception. (springer.com)
  • Learning is characterized by persistent and measurable changes in behavior which are not associated with fatigue, altered motivation, or maturation. (wikibooks.org)
  • Learning as an adaptive behavior allows individuals to adapt to specific environment challenges. (wikibooks.org)
  • implicitly
  • Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. (jove.com)
  • task
  • Several researchers at the UCLA tested the hypothesis that distraction can change the way a task is learned. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their experiment, they played a series of high and low tones while asking subjects to do a simple probabilistic classification task. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the single task (ST) case, subjects only learned to predict the weather. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the dual task (DT) case, subjects were also asked to count the number of high pitched tones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common belief is that sleep deprivation can affect children when they are learning at school or in any daily task. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nondeclarative learning was measured by having children perform an Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study showed that nondeclarative learning was preserved and not affected when sleep deprived children took the ASRT task. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CSD task involved the learning of two consecutive discriminations in a four-hole board, each performed on two different floors. (springer.com)
  • It was not a matter of evaluating the participants' accuracy in the task-they were indeed very inaccurate-it was instead an endeavor to map the errors subjects make, so that a comparison could be drawn between the objective position of the click and the position in which participants subjectively perceive it. (springer.com)
  • A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. (jove.com)
  • This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly enough, the impaired subjects made entirely normal perceptions in this task. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects were involved in an auditory attention task, which required the reproduction of the spatial relationships between four letters, using a graph composed of six squares, immediately following the presentation of an item from a tape recorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as "Nils gave a hug to his brother," as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event. (frontiersin.org)
  • Patterns that are of consequence to our daily lives are readily learned, which suggests the presence of powerful biases in their search and representation. (wikibooks.org)
  • However
  • However, different types of learning are processed differently and have different outcomes when a child is sleep deprived. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming were only predictive of children's performance concerning the syntactic and grammatical structure of their written text productions. (scielo.br)
  • however, top-down control mechanisms must somehow regulate learning to achieve an adaptive balance between plasticity and stability in neural circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
  • Light verb constructions, however, seem to form a category of their own, in which the syntactic structure leads listeners down an initial incorrect assignment of thematic roles, from which they only partly recover. (frontiersin.org)
  • experiment
  • Experiment 1 tests the requirement of attention for the initial presentation and repetition of stimuli in the learning-related repetition attenuation effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • Data from an eye-tracking experiment and behavioral categorization data reveal that listeners learn to categorize sentences according to the number of thematic roles they convey, independent of their syntax. (frontiersin.org)
  • important
  • Thus, attention actively governs when neuronal activity is attenuated to repeated perceptual input, and such attention is important during both initial encoding and subsequent expression of the learned information. (jneurosci.org)
  • mice
  • We found that differences in learning between 3×Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th) training trial. (jove.com)
  • system
  • Here, we are particularly interested in those components of the visuomotor sequence-learning system that can support transfer to new sequences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. (dericbownds.net)
  • emotional
  • Doyere V, Gisquet-Verrier P, de Marsanich B, Ammassari-Teule M (2000) Age-related modifications of contextual information processing in rats: role of emotional reactivity, arousal and testing procedure. (springer.com)
  • Patient
  • In these approaches, the light noun ( kiss in give a kiss ) forms part of the predicate and assigns thematic roles, such that (1a) and (1b) are semantically equivalent in their event type, each having two roles (Agent and Patient of kiss ). (frontiersin.org)
  • effect
  • An inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS was found during practice, such that the rate of learning was slowed in comparison to the anodal and sham groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • stress, hormones and menstrual cycle phases in women, were tested for their effect on declarative learning in young adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • faculty of XAML COPD loved, providing the Canvas tuo for Background, the books Item for maintaining nullaque, and the role " for wearing independent resources, but every XPS tree lies Please a XAML effect. (interlinkbooks.com)
  • child
  • Therefore, the lack of sleep a child obtains can affect declarative learning and can affect how well a child learns during school overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic concepts are first learned by the child, that is, the child first learns "cat" (which is a basic concept) and then the concepts "animal" or "feline" (which are superordinate concepts), before "Siamese cat" (which is a subordinated concept). (scielo.br)
  • test
  • Declarative learning was measured by "The War of the Ghosts" test, which is a recall test where the children were told a short story consisting of thirty-six sentences and had to then recall it immediately after hearing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Learned aversion of such taste is an adaptive trait that trains the body to stay away from items that are likely poisonous (e.g., berries or mushroom). (wikibooks.org)
  • Participants
  • Once learned, participants were presented with language input, which was systematically changed in terms of either the phrase structure rules or one feature of a particular word category. (jneurosci.org)
  • elements
  • Subjects from low-SES backgrounds also showed increased output of cortisol in daily life, heightened expression of transcripts bearing response elements for NF-κB, and greater stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. (dericbownds.net)
  • motor
  • We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would enhance learning of fine motor sequences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Learning structure in the form of motor sequences appears to depend on plasticity in brain regions involved in motor control, including the basal ganglia, motor cortical areas and the cerebellum [ 7 - 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Declarative learning is acquiring information that one can speak about (contrast with motor learning). (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, much of what is known about aging and motor learning has emerged from cross-sectional studies in which data from older adults are pooled together for comparison against those from younger adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • outcomes
  • The basal ganglia support learning to exploit decisions that have yielded positive outcomes in the past. (dericbownds.net)
  • We show that two genes controlling striatal dopamine function, DARPP-32 (also called PPP1R1B) and DRD2, are associated with exploitative learning to adjust response times incrementally as a function of positive and negative decision outcomes. (dericbownds.net)
  • found
  • 1998), found striking differences in perceived trustworthiness and approachability ratings between subjects with complete bilateral amygdala damage and a control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • The effect of sleep after learning proved to be stable when retesting was postponed for another night, to exclude effects of sleep loss and to assure that all subjects had sufficient sleep before retrieval testing. (pnas.org)
  • Retrieval testing on the texture discrimination task in these studies revealed a significant performance gain only if the learning session was followed by a period of sleep. (pnas.org)
  • tasks
  • Here, we relate individual differences in volumes along the hippocampal long axis to performance on statistical learning and associative inference tasks-both of which require encoding associations that span multiple episodes-in a developmental sample ranging from ages 6-30 years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Controlling for age, we also found that smaller hippocampal heads were associated with superior behavioral performance on both tasks, consistent with this region's hypothesized role in forming generalized codes spanning events. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of the brains of subjects exposed to thirty-five hours of sleep deprivation indicate that sleep deprivation is related to increases in prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe activation during tasks that combine verbal learning and arithmetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non sleep-deprived individuals involved in verbal learning and arithmetic tasks the anterior cingulate cortex and the right prefrontal cortex are active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased work with amnesic patients led to the finding that they were able to retain and learn tasks other than motor skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Declarative Learning can be associated with tasks that require a greater amount of attention, such as learning in school. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research focusing on children has also looked at different ways of utilizing declarative learning when it comes to memorizing tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilateral
  • Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. (jove.com)
  • 1998), found striking differences in perceived trustworthiness and approachability ratings between subjects with complete bilateral amygdala damage and a control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • auditory
  • Subjects were involved in an auditory attention task, which required the reproduction of the spatial relationships between four letters, using a graph composed of six squares, immediately following the presentation of an item from a tape recorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • scans
  • At fixed time points between individual scans, subjects were asked to eat to satiation while remaining in the scanner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Subjects were randomized into two groups: (1) an "early satiation" group who ate after four PET scans (i.e., ∼24 min from beginning of scanning, and (2) a "late satiation" group who ate after eight PET scans (i.e., ∼56 min from beginning of scanning). (jneurosci.org)
  • study
  • All subjects gave informed consent to the study, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the United Kingdom Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee. (jneurosci.org)
  • Backhaus, Hoeckesfeld, Born, Hohagen, and Junghanns conducted a study to see if sleeping after a task enhances declarative learning in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • identify
  • A simple, commercially available test known as the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Identification Test, in which subjects must try to identify 16 different odors, was given to 728 older adults, as well as a standard cognitive test (the Montreal Cognitive Assessment). (memory-key.com)
  • Infants
  • REM sleep is also thought to play a role in the cognitive development of infants and children as they spend much more of their sleep in REM periods opposed to adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children
  • Declarative learning was measured by "The War of the Ghosts" test, which is a recall test where the children were told a short story consisting of thirty-six sentences and had to then recall it immediately after hearing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • The observations demonstrate a critical role of sleep for storing and optimizing motor skills. (pnas.org)
  • In many cases, procedural learning appears to be linked to discrete changes in low-level representations in the hierarchy of sensory input and motor output processing, taking place in specific sensory and motor cortical areas ( 7 , 8 , 16 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • found
  • We found that differences in learning between 3×Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th) training trial. (jove.com)
  • possible role
  • Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. (jove.com)
  • simple
  • In their experiment, they played a series of high and low tones while asking subjects to do a simple probabilistic classification task. (wikipedia.org)
  • facts
  • The book is written in an easy-to-read, entertaining style but each chapter also contains a facts' section with compact text and diagrams for easy learning. (sapiensman.com)
  • brain
  • Two discoveries that would later play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain largely responsible for language production, and Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be mostly responsible for comprehension of language. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Subjects were instructed to abstain from eating in the 16 hr preceding the scanning session (which always began at 4:00 P.M.) but to drink fluids as normal. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly enough, the impaired subjects made entirely normal perceptions in this task. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Arriaga G, Zhou EP, Jarvis ED (2012) Of mice, birds, and men: the mouse ultrasonic song system has some features similar to humans and song-learning birds. (springer.com)
  • results
  • The results showed that all of the amygdally impaired subjects rated unfamiliar faces as much more trustworthy and approachable than familiar faces. (wikipedia.org)