• tasks
  • Following work showing that interleaved practice of tasks is beneficial to learning, we have found in previous work using the SRT task that presenting sequences in an interleaved order (e.g. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Declarative Learning can be associated with tasks that require a greater amount of attention, such as learning in school. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research focusing on children has also looked at different ways of utilizing declarative learning when it comes to memorizing tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test battery was composed of an expressive vocabulary test, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming tasks, words and pseudowords spelling, and written text composition using a visual stimulus as a starting point. (scielo.br)
  • Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. (jove.com)
  • Although previous work suggests that older adults learn novel motor tasks slower and to a lesser extent than younger adults, we have recently demonstrated no significant effect of chronological age on the rates and amounts of skill acquisition, nor on its long-term retention, in adults over the age of 65. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased work with amnesic patients led to the finding that they were able to retain and learn tasks other than motor skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of the brains of subjects exposed to thirty-five hours of sleep deprivation indicate that sleep deprivation is related to increases in prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe activation during tasks that combine verbal learning and arithmetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non sleep-deprived individuals involved in verbal learning and arithmetic tasks the anterior cingulate cortex and the right prefrontal cortex are active. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Memory, the cognitive process whereby experiences, learning and recognition are recalled, is a product of brain plasticity, the structural changes within synapses that create associations between stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • REM sleep is also thought to play a role in the cognitive development of infants and children as they spend much more of their sleep in REM periods opposed to adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two discoveries that would later play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain largely responsible for language production, and Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be mostly responsible for comprehension of language. (wikipedia.org)
  • memory
  • Episodic memory and semantic memory are a further division of declarative information. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two ways to learn a telephone number: memorize it using your declarative memory, or use it many times to create a habit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research indicates declarative and habit memory compete with each other during distraction[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3×Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. (jove.com)
  • The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3×Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies. (jove.com)
  • Patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimers type express less serotonin 4 receptors (5-HTR(4)), but whether an absence of these receptors modifies learning and memory is unexplored. (jove.com)
  • In this experiment we present a technique to measure learning and memory. (jove.com)
  • Trace fear conditioning has been successfully used to detect subtle learning and memory deficits and enhancements in mice that are not found with other fear conditioning methods. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, other fear conditioning testing is needed to examine amygdala-dependent learning and memory effects, such as through the delay fear conditioning. (jove.com)
  • This process is thought to form an integral component of memory and learning. (wikibooks.org)
  • By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. (jove.com)
  • These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. (jove.com)
  • The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). (jove.com)
  • Although limited in capacity, visual working memory (VWM) plays an important role in many aspects of visually-guided behavior. (jove.com)
  • The influence of RF in neuronal functions, including regulation of synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, neuronal survival, and learning and memory, has also been reported [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also known to play a role in the processing of and memory for emotional events. (wikipedia.org)
  • implicitly
  • Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. (jove.com)
  • However
  • However, different types of learning are processed differently and have different outcomes when a child is sleep deprived. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, phonological awareness and rapid serial naming were only predictive of children's performance concerning the syntactic and grammatical structure of their written text productions. (scielo.br)
  • however, top-down control mechanisms must somehow regulate learning to achieve an adaptive balance between plasticity and stability in neural circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, FSG learning based on exemplar-specific information has been shown to be intact in patients suffering from global amnesia and thus to be independent of the hippocampal system ( Knowlton and Squire, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • neuronal
  • Thus, attention actively governs when neuronal activity is attenuated to repeated perceptual input, and such attention is important during both initial encoding and subsequent expression of the learned information. (jneurosci.org)
  • study
  • In a typical sequence-learning study, participants practise a repeating sequence during a training session. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The linguistic abilities analyzed in this study were predictive of subjects' spelling performance. (scielo.br)
  • All subjects gave informed consent to the study, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the United Kingdom Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee. (jneurosci.org)
  • suggests
  • Patterns that are of consequence to our daily lives are readily learned, which suggests the presence of powerful biases in their search and representation. (wikibooks.org)
  • Moreover, data analysis over time on learning suggests that similarity-based learning plays a nonobligatory role during the initial phase, and that rule-based abstraction plays a crucial role during later learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • system
  • Here, we are particularly interested in those components of the visuomotor sequence-learning system that can support transfer to new sequences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. (dericbownds.net)
  • It is well established that noradrenaline neurotransmitters play an important role in the early development of the central nervous system (CNS) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • scans
  • At fixed time points between individual scans, subjects were asked to eat to satiation while remaining in the scanner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Subjects were randomized into two groups: (1) an "early satiation" group who ate after four PET scans (i.e., ∼24 min from beginning of scanning, and (2) a "late satiation" group who ate after eight PET scans (i.e., ∼56 min from beginning of scanning). (jneurosci.org)
  • child
  • Therefore, the lack of sleep a child obtains can affect declarative learning and can affect how well a child learns during school overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic concepts are first learned by the child, that is, the child first learns "cat" (which is a basic concept) and then the concepts "animal" or "feline" (which are superordinate concepts), before "Siamese cat" (which is a subordinated concept). (scielo.br)
  • test
  • Declarative learning was measured by "The War of the Ghosts" test, which is a recall test where the children were told a short story consisting of thirty-six sentences and had to then recall it immediately after hearing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Learned aversion of such taste is an adaptive trait that trains the body to stay away from items that are likely poisonous (e.g., berries or mushroom). (wikibooks.org)
  • Participants
  • Once learned, participants were presented with language input, which was systematically changed in terms of either the phrase structure rules or one feature of a particular word category. (jneurosci.org)
  • elements
  • Subjects from low-SES backgrounds also showed increased output of cortisol in daily life, heightened expression of transcripts bearing response elements for NF-κB, and greater stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. (dericbownds.net)
  • rapid
  • When viewers search for targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream, if two targets are presented within about 500 msec of each other, the first target may be easy to spot but the second is likely to be missed. (jove.com)
  • motor
  • We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would enhance learning of fine motor sequences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Learning structure in the form of motor sequences appears to depend on plasticity in brain regions involved in motor control, including the basal ganglia, motor cortical areas and the cerebellum [ 7 - 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Declarative learning is acquiring information that one can speak about (contrast with motor learning). (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, much of what is known about aging and motor learning has emerged from cross-sectional studies in which data from older adults are pooled together for comparison against those from younger adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • outcomes
  • The basal ganglia support learning to exploit decisions that have yielded positive outcomes in the past. (dericbownds.net)
  • We show that two genes controlling striatal dopamine function, DARPP-32 (also called PPP1R1B) and DRD2, are associated with exploitative learning to adjust response times incrementally as a function of positive and negative decision outcomes. (dericbownds.net)
  • found
  • We found that differences in learning between 3×Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th) training trial. (jove.com)
  • 1998), found striking differences in perceived trustworthiness and approachability ratings between subjects with complete bilateral amygdala damage and a control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • extent
  • We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. (jove.com)