• rats
  • A new model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats induced by colon irritation during postnatal development. (currentprotocols.com)
  • With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question. (biologists.org)
  • Rats and mice have been the leading model organisms used in biomedical research for well over a century, although other animals, such as non-human primates, zebrafish, fruit flies and roundworms, are also used. (biologists.org)
  • However, in recent years a shift in rodent-based research has taken place, with mice rapidly overtaking rats as the major model of choice in biological research. (biologists.org)
  • However, based on a large body of evidence, rats are not simply 'big mice' and, although similar in many aspects, there are fundamental differences between these rodents. (biologists.org)
  • Overall, we aim to show that rats and mice both have an important role to play in understanding the aetiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology of neuropsychiatric diseases, and that a careful examination of both organisms is necessary before a choice of model for a translational study can be made. (biologists.org)
  • Using isolated brain capillaries from mice and rats and an animal model of epilepsy, the researchers found that glutamate, a neurotransmitter released when neurons fire during seizures, turns on a signaling pathway that activates cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), causing increased synthesis of P-glycoprotein in these experiments. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using this novel methodology, Knockout Rats and Mice can be generated in as little as four months, about one-third the time required to make a Knockout model using conventional Embryonic Stem Cell (ES cell) based approaches. (medindia.net)
  • Motivational responses to natural and drug rewards in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions: An animal model of dual diagnosis schizophrenia. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In laboratory rats and mice, grooming is the most common activity other than sleep, and grooming stereotypies have been used to investigate several animal models of anxiety and depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severity
  • We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Within specific animal models, novel metrics are identified that track disease severity and efficacy of reference compounds automatically and objectively. (labroots.com)
  • humans
  • Such models are commonly used to study disease states in humans and play a key role in the drug discovery process. (medindia.net)
  • However, while many insights into the control of obesity have come from experiments since its introduction in 1949, the use of animal models does restrict our ability to extrapolate findings to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is affected by "environmental, biological, and psychosocial pressures", therefore it is understandable that several limitations are established when translating results between the results of a diet induced obesity model in a lab and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous sources of biological variation arise in rodents before translating results to humans is even considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other research using this model has been done by Stephanie White at the University of California Los Angeles, who studied mutations in the FOXP2 gene and its potential role in learned vocalization in both songbirds (specifically the zebra finch) and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rodents, it has wide tissue distribution where as in humans, it is only expressed in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic, and behavioral rodent models of ASD. (frontiersin.org)
  • these advances in technology will likely lead to a rapid increase in genetic rat models as well. (biologists.org)
  • ST. LOUIS, Aug. 21 Sigma-Aldrich(R) (Nasdaq: SIAL) announced today that scientists at its new Sigma Advanced Genetic Engineering (SAGE(TM)) Labs in St. Louis will leverage its exclusive CompoZr(TM) Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) gene editing technology (www.compozrzfn.com) to define, develop and offer a new generation of genetically-engineered rodent research models. (medindia.net)
  • The GAERS or Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg is a recognized animal model of Absence Epilepsy, a typical childhood form of Epilepsy characterized by recurrent loss of contact and concomitant pattern on the electroencephalogram called "spike-and-wave" discharges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Curcumin, the major polyphenol found in turmeric, appears to reduce weight gain in mice and suppress the growth of fat tissue in mice and cell models. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 weeks, despite the same diet type and duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behaviors measured in these models include "approach to olfactory pheromones emitted by other mice, approach to familiar and new conspecifics, reciprocal social interactions, ultrasonic vocalizations, communal nesting, sexual and parenting behaviors, territorial scent marking, and aggressive behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • However, the study of behaviors paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression, and disorders of sleep onset across models. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fruit fly ALS models can be used to study the locomotion and eye changes that can be related to human symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by being fed high-fat and/or high-density diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the model was developed in order to create a controlled environment for the study of how obesity develops, as well as its effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is useful to study hypoxic ischemia in the developing brain, since newborn rat pups are utilized in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviors, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behavior, and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stroke
  • It is often used as a model of focal stroke to evaluate candidate pro-regenerative therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is achieved in this model by injecting particles like blood clots (thrombembolic MCAO) or artificial spheres into the carotid artery of animals as an animal model of ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thrombembolic model is closest to the pathophysiology of human cardioembolic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Here we review findings from salient rodent models of ASD identifying endophenotypes that parallel core ASD deficits in combination with one or more comorbid traits commonly reported in patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • If these two rodents are more or less identical, it would be pointless, and unethical, to replicate the findings in one organism in the other without a valid reason. (biologists.org)
  • effects
  • Cognitive effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions in a rat model of schizophrenia. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The DIO model was developed in response to growing concerns over the health effects of obesity, as well as the rapid growth of the obesity rate in countries around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • However, despite the prevalence of comorbidities in patients, studies in animal models to date have largely focused on characterizing core behavioral traits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies applying Finite Element Modeling (FEM) to IVDs under the lower osmotic pressure of the space environment shows that the appearance of a crack in the IVD experiencing lower osmotic pressure will increase the IVD risk for injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • The potential applications using these rodent models of human disease could ultimately eliminate years of research time and save millions of lives," said Dr. Dave Smoller, President, Sigma Research Biotechnology. (medindia.net)
  • behaviors
  • Users of such models must take into account the duration and type of diet (e.g. hydrated gels vs. dry pellets) as well as the environmental conditions and age of the animals, as each may promote different bodyweights, fat percentages, or behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • We report the discovery of compound 4a, a potent β-lactam-based monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitor characterized by an irreversible and stereoselective mechanism of action, high membrane permeability, high brain penetration evaluated using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model, high selectivity in binding and affinity-based proteomic profiling assays, and low in vitro toxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to knock-out/in genes that are related to ALS, and it is very beneficial in increasing the expression of the genes to mimic the human model of ALS for a faster onset of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • While models are an important method of investigating the influences of obesity and drug testing, it is important to understand the limits of the model's overall ability to resemble the human obesogenic pathophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, A1 is currently found only at extremely low levels in the human liver and intestine, while it is highly expressed in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Similar difficulties in switching between motor behaviours have been seen in bank voles which suggests that basal ganglia dysfunction might be a factor in the development of stereotypies in rodents and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Development and Pharmacological Characterization of Selective Blockers of 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol Degradation with Efficacy in Rodent Models of Multiple Sclerosis and Pain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • injury
  • This presentation will show how novel Vium metrics can be used to assess disease in a model of lung injury and in the MRL/lpr model of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. (labroots.com)
  • This model creates a unilateral infarct in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligation, since the hypoxia alone is subthreshold for injury at this age. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • Rodents were exposed to either intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a characteristic feature of sleep apnea, or to sustained hypoxia (SH), and expression of MCT1 and MCT2 was assessed. (jneurosci.org)