• miRNA
  • On its own, pre-miRNA is in a "closed" conformation, with the 3' overhang flipped up toward the RNA minor groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • This helps the backbone phosphates of these two nucleotides form hydrogen bonds with many XPO5 residues, allowing XPO5 to recognize the RNA as pre-miRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these interactions involve only the RNA phosphate backbone, they are nonspecific and allow XPO5 to recognize and transport any pre-miRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates of the average number of unique messenger RNAs that are targets for repression by a typical miRNA vary, depending on the estimation method, but multiple approaches show that mammalian miRNAs can have many unique targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, experiments show that a single miRNA species can reduce the stability of hundreds of unique messenger RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least three primary classes of small RNA have currently been identified, namely: small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • asRNAs occur naturally in nature and have been found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belongs to a subtype of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is larger than 200 nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • This structure is known as small internally segmented interfering RNA [ 17 ] (sisiRNA). (hindawi.com)
  • With Andrew Hamilton he discovered the small interfering RNA that is the specificity determinant in RNA-mediated gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • With other members of his research group at the Sainsbury Laboratory, Baulcombe also helped unravel the importance of small interfering RNA in epigenetics and in defence against viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known, however, that plants and animals have analogous mechanism for small RNA-guided heterochromatin formation, and it is believed that the mechanisms described above for S. pombe are highly conserved and play some role in heterochromatin formation in mammals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA activation (RNAa) is a small RNA-guided and Argonaute (Ago)-dependent gene regulation phenomenon in which promoter-targeted short double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) induce target gene expression at the transcriptional/epigenetic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such promoter targeted dsRNAs have been termed antigene RNA (agRNAs) or small activating RNA (saRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, the lin-4 small RNA was thought to be a nematode idiosyncrasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, a second small RNA was characterized: let-7 RNA, which represses lin-41 to promote a later developmental transition in C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The let-7 RNA was found to be conserved in many species, leading to the suggestion that let-7 RNA and additional "small temporal RNAs" might regulate the timing of development in diverse animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, the lin-4 and let-7 RNAs were found to be part of a large class of small RNAs present in C. elegans, Drosophila and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other classes of small RNA have been identified, including piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) and its subspecies repeat associated small interfering RNA (rasiRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context in which the phenomenon was first studied, small RNA was found to play an important role in defending plants against viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of diverse functions have been proposed for a growing number of characterized small RNA sequences-e.g., regulation of developmental, neuronal cell fate, cell death, proliferation, fat storage, haematopoietic cell fate, insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • While RNA silencing is an evolving class of mechanisms, a common theme is the fundamental relationship between small RNAs and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is significant at least because the evidence suggests that small RNAs play a role in the modulation of chromatin structure and TGS. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike micF RNA being discovered by accident, the majority of asRNAs were discovered by genome wide searches for small regulatory RNAs and by transcriptome analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Delivery of inhibitory RNAs to target tissues needs to be safe, efficient, and for many diseases, long-lasting, in order to exploit this endogenous mechanism for therapeutic purposes. (omicsonline.org)
  • proteins
  • The RNA-loaded Ago then recruits other proteins such as RHA, also known as nuclear DNA helicase II, and CTR9 to form an RNA-induced transcriptional activation (RITA) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • To minimize the number of false positive results, new approaches from recent years have been focusing on strand-specific transcription, chromatin binding noncoding RNAs and single cell studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • One of the two strands of each fragment, known as the guide strand , is then incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (phys.org)
  • Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. (hindawi.com)
  • expression
  • The many RNAs of this class resembled the lin-4 and let-7 RNAs, except their expression patterns were usually inconsistent with a role in regulating the timing of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA silencing or RNA interference refers to a family of gene silencing effects by which gene expression is negatively regulated by non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the varied and nuanced role of RNA silencing in the regulation of gene expression remains an ongoing scientific inquiry. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. (hindawi.com)
  • The regions that are predicted to have conserved RNA structures and act as orphan promoters and Rho-independent terminators are preferenced during analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • messenger
  • He continued his studies at the University of Edinburgh, where he received his Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 for research on Messenger RNA in vascular plants supervised by John Ingle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Processing and Intracellular Transport of Messenger RNA in a Higher Plant (1976) (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This product is then processed by Dicer and loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • As with all patent applications, the company must demonstrate that its RNA interference technology has utility, is adequately described in the specification of the patent application, and is both novel and nonobvious. (law360.com)
  • Rossi
  • They were the first to really describe the fact that this was a double-stranded RNA mediated phenomenon," says John Rossi of Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California. (newscientist.com)