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  • genes
  • Our previous study has proven that the poly(ester amine) carrier is less than 150 nm and offers effective delivery potential due to a biodegradable complex formation with genes with little toxicity and enhanced gene transfer efficiency (10). (redorbit.com)
  • A modification pattern involving alternating 2′- O -methyl RNA bases was developed that generally retains high potency when tested in different sites in different genes, evades activation of the innate immune system, and improves stability in serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overprinted genes are particularly common features of the genomic organization of viruses, likely to greatly increase the number of potential expressible genes from a small set of viral genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This experiment showed that RISC was not responsible for generating the observable small nucleotide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argonautes, the most well-studied family of nucleic-acid binding proteins, are RNase H-like enzymes that carry out the catalytic functions of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • A primary transcript of the HIV provirus serves as the genomic RNA for future generations of HIV and is processed to ensure efficient translation of viral proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the authors of this study did not find RNA-induced silencing complex-associated proteins in these exosomes, they suggested that only the pre-miRNAs but not the mature miRNAs in MSC exosomes have the potential to be biologically active in the recipient cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • piRNAs form RNA-protein complexes through interactions with piwi proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Piwi proteins are highly conserved RNA-binding proteins and are present in both plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small RNA partners of Ago proteins are microRNAs (miRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Piwi proteins all contain two RNA binding domains, PAZ and Piwi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four PIWI-like proteins have a spacious binding site within the PAZ domain which allows them to bind the bulky 2'-OCH3 at the 3' end of piwi-interacting RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of piwi proteins in human and mouse germlines seems to stem from their involvement in translation control as Piwi and the small noncoding RNA, piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), have been known to co-fractionate polysomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The piwi domain is a protein domain found in piwi proteins and a large number of related nucleic acid-binding proteins, especially those that bind and cleave RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo studies included serial MRI of NOD-SCID mice transplanted with MN-small interfering (si)Caspase-3-labeled human islets under the left kidney capsule and MN-treated islets under the right kidney capsule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • transcription
  • Typical transcription cassettes use an RNA polymerase III promoter (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition occurred at two points in the viral life cycle, after fusion and before reverse transcription and during transcription of viral RNA from integrated provirus. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the viral life cycle, viral RNA is present in the cytoplasm of cells after fusion and before reverse transcription, which presents a target that when acted on can inhibit infection before proviral integration. (jimmunol.org)
  • In nature complementarity is the base principle of DNA replication and transcription as it is a property shared between two DNA or RNA sequences, such that when they are aligned antiparallel to each other, the nucleotide bases at each position in the sequences will be complementary, much like looking in the mirror and seeing the reverse of things. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementarity is also utilized in DNA transcription, which generates an RNA strand from a DNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sense strand is, generally, the transcribed sequence of DNA or the RNA that was generated in transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • A complementary strand of DNA or RNA may be constructed based on nucleobase complementarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-complementarity refers to the fact that a sequence of DNA or RNA may fold back on itself, creating a double-strand like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Some studies attribute this observation to selective pressure toward small genome sizes mediated by the physical constraints of packaging the genome in a viral capsid, particularly one of icosahedral geometry. (wikipedia.org)