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  • antisense
  • Antisense RNA (asRNA), also referred as antisense transcript, natural antisense transcript (NAT) or antisense oligonucleotide, is a single stranded RNA that is complementary to a protein coding messenger RNA (mRNA) that hybridize with it and thereby blocks its translation into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that asRNAs as drug targets started in 1978 when Zamecnik and Stephenson found an antisense oligoneucleotides to the viral RNA of Rous scarcoma virus was capable of inhibiting viral replication and protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • asRNAs occur naturally in nature and have been found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belongs to a subtype of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is larger than 200 nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • The presence of pseudouridine in the mixed 10S RNA hinted that tmRNA has modified bases found also in tRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNAs
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBP) are involved in ( 1 ) splicing and alternative splicing of hnRNA, resulting in the formation of mRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • More than 100 types of RNA modifications have been described so far, recent studies have revealed they are abundant in mRNAs and in regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, e.g. lncRNAs, miRNAs, snoRNAs) as well as in tRNAs, rRNAs and snRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Modulation of messenger RNA stability is usually mediated by stabilizing or destabilizing RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BP) that bind to the 3′-untranslated region regulatory motifs, such as AU-rich elements (AREs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review we provide a succinct overview of the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in regulating gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • We have divided the review into subheadings under which we discuss the effect of alcohol on RNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins in neurological diseases and cancer, and finally the methods employed to identify RBPs and/or ligands of a RBP. (mdpi.com)
  • For this process the RNA is associated with nuclear proteins that aid in splicing and nuclear export [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA - RNA is both the bridge between DNA and the production of proteins that carry out the functions of life and what guides which and how much protein gets made. (eurekalert.org)
  • In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein biosynthesis, for example when reaching the end of a messenger RNA which has lost its stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Pseudouridylation of nonsense codons suppresses translation termination both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that RNA modification may provide a new way to expand the genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • purification
  • Magnetic capture techniques have overcome these problems, allowing rapid and efficient purification of microbial DNA and RNA. (usda.gov)
  • bacterial
  • In other bacterial species, a permuted ssrA gene produces a two-piece tmRNA in which two separate RNA chains are joined by base-pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • Total RNA from 1 X 10(7) cells was extracted, transferred to a membrane, and hybridized with a 32P-labeled, full-length (1650-base pair) rat angiotensinogen complementary DNA (cDNA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Modifications
  • In 2010, He proposed that RNA modifications could be reversible and may have regulatory roles analogous to well-known reversible DNA and protein modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, functional experiments have revealed many novel functional roles of RNA modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Presence of angiotensinogen messenger RNA in various cultured cell lines. (ahajournals.org)
  • The transcribed RNA now represents information required to direct cellular function to maintain cell homeostasis. (mdpi.com)
  • The team demonstrated that the expression of an RNA binding protein called CELF2 is increased in response to T-cell stimulation such as occurs in response to circulating antigens from foreign microbes or tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • existence
  • In this second of a two-part clip, Sydney Brenner describes the experiment they did to prove the existence and function of RNA. (dnalc.org)
  • novel
  • A novel database, RMBase (http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/rmbase/), has provide various web interfaces to show all RNA modification sites identified from above-mentioned sequencing technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • copy
  • Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matt Meselson's experiment showed that RNA was a copy of the information in DNA. (dnalc.org)
  • make
  • And I said that you could simply act by, the model was that you have some kind of a switch to make the messenger RNA, and that closing or opening the switch at different speed could result in the production at different speed of the protein. (dnalc.org)