• Arrhythmia
  • Those who are found to be at high risk would therefore benefit from the placement of a defibrillator device which can stop an arrhythmia and save the patient's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Decisions about surgical intervention center on the patients overall medical condition, the degree of symptoms caused by the fistula and any associated abnormalities, and the risk of a proposed corrective procedure.Sato S. Phys. (forextradinggs.com)
  • The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend a selective pharmacoinvasive strategy in non-high risk patients [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • No major complications were noted with baroreflex testing and in particular no patients developed ischaemic or arrhythmic symptoms during the procedure. (bmj.com)
  • It has been shown to have great scope in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients in the emergency room. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the past, exercise stress testing was performed to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic patients and it is not currently recommended as a screening test. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 The American Heart Association (AHA) Prevention V Conference emphasized going beyond secondary prevention and addressed ways to identify risk in asymptomatic patients to justify more intensive risk reduction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines have classified patients into different categories, depending upon the presence of CHD or risk factors for 10-year risk of fatal CHD or nonfatal MI, as illustrated in Table 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 Several factors of AAOCA are unknown, including the exact prevalence, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to SCD, the actual risk of death for the different types of anatomy, the optimal way to evaluate these patients, and whether or not any treatment strategies decrease the risk of SCD in such patients are unknown. (acc.org)
  • 3,4,11 Current reports indicate that the risk of SCD is higher during childhood and early adulthood, with most reported events occurring in patients between 10 and 30 years of age, 10,12 abating significantly thereafter. (acc.org)
  • Anecdotal factors have been postulated for such phenomena, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and thus risk stratification,are still lacking in patients diagnosed with AAOCA. (acc.org)
  • The management of patients with AAOCA is also challenging given the paucity of data in risk stratification and longitudinal follow-up data. (acc.org)
  • These observations provide additional impetus for adding the measurement of these markers to the clinical classification and represent a novel concept of treating these high-risk patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • The low likelihood patients generally can effectively be managed with no testing procedures. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Those patients with an intermediate to high likelihood of CAD should be planned for further risk stratification based on the patient's ability to perform routine activities of daily living without difficulty as well as the baseline ECG being normal. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The test is also indicated to assess exercise capacity in response to therapy in patients with heart failure. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The goal of exercise testing in patients suspected of having coronary artery disease is to achieve a high level of exercise (i.e., maximal exertion) in the setting of a negative ECG. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The guidelines note that invasive coronary arteriography should be considered for patients with SIHD whose clinical characteristics and results of noninvasive testing indicate a high likelihood of severe IHD and when the benefits are deemed to exceed risk. (acc.org)
  • Microvolt T wave alternans testing acts as a risk stratifier between patients who need implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and those who do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who test negative for MTWA are less likely to require an ICD than those who test positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple prospective clinical trials indicate that patients from broad groups of at risk populations who test MTWA negative will likely live ventricular event-free for 12 to 24 months after their initial MTWA test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who test MTWA positive or indeterminate for heart rate or dense ectopy (abnormal) should be referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who have an indeterminate test should be retested immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that over 50% of patients who initially test as indeterminate, become determinate if retested during the same session. (wikipedia.org)
  • post heart transplantation patients As MFI is absolutely risk free and harmless for the patient, the procedure can be repeated without any negative effects for the patient, which gives the cardiologist the opportunity to observe a patient's progressive changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Consortium are especially interested in testing simple, low-risk, and inexpensive treatments that have the potential to markedly improve patients' surgical experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • versus
  • Attenuation artifacts are ubiquitous and problematic for Tc-99m as well as for thallium-201, particularly when persistent defects raise the question of myocardial scar versus artifact. (onlinejacc.org)
  • American College of
  • Although there are many existing and well validated models for this, we feel that the most practical risk tool is the model put forth by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and its most recent guidelines ( Table 1 ). (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • heart
  • This risk stratification is based on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, see http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org ) in the US, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) study, 1 and the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study in Germany. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Exercise capacity remains one of the strongest indicators of long-term risk (including death) for men and women with suspected or known coronary heart disease. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • An ECG is a diagnostic test that records the electrical activity of the heart and helps to detect cardiac abnormalities. (medindia.net)
  • Two methods are currently FDA-cleared to perform MTWA testing in the U.S., namely, the Spectral Method, which was developed by Cohen and Smith at M.I.T. and was commercialized by Cambridge Heart, and the Modified Moving Average (MMA) method, which was developed by Nearing and Verrier at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and is commercialized by GE Healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spectral Method requires a specialized exercise protocol and proprietary electrodes and washout of beta-adrenergic blocking agents to allow the patient to achieve a target heart rate of 105-110 beats/min. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • High blood pressure and valvular heart disease are the most common alterable risk factors for AF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other heart-related risk factors include heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A history of stroke or TIA, as well as high blood pressure, diabetes, heart failure, or rheumatic fever may indicate whether someone with AF is at a higher risk of complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • underwent
  • Of those who took the test, 12% subsequently underwent bypass grafts surgery compared with 14% of those who did not (p greater than .05). (ahajournals.org)
  • Twenty-six volunteers underwent a submaximal or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a cycle ergometer and were divided into AMI group (AMIG=12, 56.33±8.65 years) and healthy group (CG=14, 53.33±3.28 years). (scielo.br)
  • mean age 57.6 ± 11.5 years) underwent gated SPECT Tc-99m sestamibi imaging (212 with exercise, 63 with dipyridamole and 10 with dobutamine). (onlinejacc.org)
  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment (for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes). (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • For people who have endothelial dysfunction and do not see improvement with different interventions, they are actually at a 7-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • On further analysis, stress survival, the negative predictive value of the two tests was similarly high. (medindia.net)
  • Overall, the goal in evaluating a patient with SIHD is to systematically and efficiently utilize the multiple modalities that are necessary to maximize the identification of high-risk features without over-testing. (acc.org)
  • Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mistakes in interpretation are relatively common, and the failure to identify high risk features has a negative effect on the quality of patient care. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • For those at low risk of stroke, no specific treatment is typically required, though aspirin or an anti-clotting medication may occasionally be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people are at higher risk of stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these medications reduce stroke risk, they increase rates of major bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • This has led to risk factor stratification and modification measures in cardiovascular practice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The terms "RCT" and randomized trial are sometimes used synonymously, but the methodologically sound practice is to reserve the "RCT" name only for trials that contain control groups, in which groups receiving the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment (a placebo-controlled study) or a previously tested treatment (a positive-control study). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Why an athlete can exercise intensely for several years without symptoms until the sentinel event occurs remains unknown. (acc.org)
  • prevention
  • Prevention of atherosclerosis involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • The design and results of different experimental and clinical studies which utilised these tests are also discussed. (springer.com)
  • the post-test probability that results will lead to a change in management and improved outcomes. (acc.org)
  • Those with indeterminate results can be tested again. (wikipedia.org)
  • limitations
  • However, each of the currently available stress imaging tests has well-documented limitations, resulting in a sizeable number of false negative and false positive studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • patient
  • For example, they have developed several accurate risk-stratification models which permit accurate comparisons across divergent patient groups (i.e., risk-adjusted comparisons amongst hospitals). (wikipedia.org)