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  • angina
  • Patients with symptoms consistent with possible angina, randomized to receive the type of stress imaging test ordered by their physician. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Particularly, cardiac-specific troponin T and troponin I have been shown to represent the best predictors of early risk in patients with angina at rest. (ahajournals.org)
  • CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • The patient's blood pressure is taken and the blood pressure cuff is left in place, so that blood pressure can be measured periodically throughout the test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Those patients with an intermediate to high likelihood of CAD should be planned for further risk stratification based on the patient's ability to perform routine activities of daily living without difficulty as well as the baseline ECG being normal. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • post heart transplantation patients As MFI is absolutely risk free and harmless for the patient, the procedure can be repeated without any negative effects for the patient, which gives the cardiologist the opportunity to observe a patient's progressive changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Additionally, many patients with chest pain are not candidates for regular stress testing due to an abnormal baseline electrocardiogram or inability to exercise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Therefore, exercise or pharmacologic stress imaging is considered the standard of care for the evaluation of coronary artery function in a large percentage of patients with chest pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Decisions about surgical intervention center on the patients overall medical condition, the degree of symptoms caused by the fistula and any associated abnormalities, and the risk of a proposed corrective procedure.Sato S. Phys. (forextradinggs.com)
  • The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend a selective pharmacoinvasive strategy in non-high risk patients [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • No major complications were noted with baroreflex testing and in particular no patients developed ischaemic or arrhythmic symptoms during the procedure. (bmj.com)
  • It has been shown to have great scope in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients in the emergency room. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the past, exercise stress testing was performed to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic patients and it is not currently recommended as a screening test. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 The American Heart Association (AHA) Prevention V Conference emphasized going beyond secondary prevention and addressed ways to identify risk in asymptomatic patients to justify more intensive risk reduction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines have classified patients into different categories, depending upon the presence of CHD or risk factors for 10-year risk of fatal CHD or nonfatal MI, as illustrated in Table 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 Several factors of AAOCA are unknown, including the exact prevalence, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to SCD, the actual risk of death for the different types of anatomy, the optimal way to evaluate these patients, and whether or not any treatment strategies decrease the risk of SCD in such patients are unknown. (acc.org)
  • 3,4,11 Current reports indicate that the risk of SCD is higher during childhood and early adulthood, with most reported events occurring in patients between 10 and 30 years of age, 10,12 abating significantly thereafter. (acc.org)
  • Anecdotal factors have been postulated for such phenomena, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and thus risk stratification,are still lacking in patients diagnosed with AAOCA. (acc.org)
  • The management of patients with AAOCA is also challenging given the paucity of data in risk stratification and longitudinal follow-up data. (acc.org)
  • These observations provide additional impetus for adding the measurement of these markers to the clinical classification and represent a novel concept of treating these high-risk patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients without a history of coronary artery disease but with symptoms of chest pain who present to the hospital, clinic or office are one of the more common presentations in which the clinician is required to assess and risk stratify. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The low likelihood patients generally can effectively be managed with no testing procedures. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The test is also indicated to assess exercise capacity in response to therapy in patients with heart failure. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The goal of exercise testing in patients suspected of having coronary artery disease is to achieve a high level of exercise (i.e., maximal exertion) in the setting of a negative ECG. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Microvolt T wave alternans testing acts as a risk stratifier between patients who need implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and those who do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who test negative for MTWA are less likely to require an ICD than those who test positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple prospective clinical trials indicate that patients from broad groups of at risk populations who test MTWA negative will likely live ventricular event-free for 12 to 24 months after their initial MTWA test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who test MTWA positive or indeterminate for heart rate or dense ectopy (abnormal) should be referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who have an indeterminate test should be retested immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that over 50% of patients who initially test as indeterminate, become determinate if retested during the same session. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Consortium are especially interested in testing simple, low-risk, and inexpensive treatments that have the potential to markedly improve patients' surgical experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • chest
  • A chest radiograph and routine blood tests may indicate complications or precipitating causes and are often performed upon arrival to an emergency department. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiopulmonary exercise
  • Twenty-six volunteers underwent a submaximal or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a cycle ergometer and were divided into AMI group (AMIG=12, 56.33±8.65 years) and healthy group (CG=14, 53.33±3.28 years). (scielo.br)
  • versus
  • Attenuation artifacts are ubiquitous and problematic for Tc-99m as well as for thallium-201, particularly when persistent defects raise the question of myocardial scar versus artifact. (onlinejacc.org)
  • American College of
  • Although there are many existing and well validated models for this, we feel that the most practical risk tool is the model put forth by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and its most recent guidelines ( Table 1 ). (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • dysfunction
  • For people who have endothelial dysfunction and do not see improvement with different interventions, they are actually at a 7-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • Diller GP (2005) Exercise intolerance in adult congenital heart disease: comparative severity, correlates, and prognostic implication. (springermedizin.de)
  • Depressed baroreflex sensitivity carried the highest relative risk for arrhythmic events (23.1, 95% CI 7.7 to 69.2) and was superior to other prognostic variables including left ventricular function (10.4, 95% CI 3.3 to 32.6) and heart rate variability (10.1, 95% CI 5.6 to 18.1). (bmj.com)
  • This risk stratification is based on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, see http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org ) in the US, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) study, 1 and the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study in Germany. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Used to evaluate heart function, a stress test requires that a patient exercises on a treadmill or exercise bicycle while his or her heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and feeling of well being are monitored. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of the increased stress on the heart, exercise can reveal coronary problems that are not apparent when the body is at rest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stress test helps doctors determine how well the heart handles the increased demands imposed by physical activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The exercise stress test carries a very slight risk (1 in 100,000) of causing a heart attack . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exercise capacity remains one of the strongest indicators of long-term risk (including death) for men and women with suspected or known coronary heart disease. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Two methods are currently FDA-cleared to perform MTWA testing in the U.S., namely, the Spectral Method, which was developed by Cohen and Smith at M.I.T. and was commercialized by Cambridge Heart, and the Modified Moving Average (MMA) method, which was developed by Nearing and Verrier at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and is commercialized by GE Healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spectral Method requires a specialized exercise protocol and proprietary electrodes and washout of beta-adrenergic blocking agents to allow the patient to achieve a target heart rate of 105-110 beats/min. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • 1 , 2 Advances in treatment have improved survival after the initial event, but persons with established CAD have a high risk of future cardiovascular events. (aafp.org)
  • This has led to risk factor stratification and modification measures in cardiovascular practice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 Each of these studies documents a 10-year risk for cardiovascular events which dictates public policies, and the intensity of treatment generally depends upon the risk stratification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment (for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dobutamine
  • mean age 57.6 ± 11.5 years) underwent gated SPECT Tc-99m sestamibi imaging (212 with exercise, 63 with dipyridamole and 10 with dobutamine). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Stress
  • However, each of the currently available stress imaging tests has well-documented limitations, resulting in a sizeable number of false negative and false positive studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For this reason, the exercise stress test should be attended by a health care professional with a defibrillator and other emergency equipment on standby. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For instance, recent studies suggest that women have a high rate of false negatives (results showing no problem when one exists) and false positives (results showing a problem when one does not exist) with the stress test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The following are the minimum requirements to accurately and reliably conduct an exercise stress test. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • when it cannot be performed or is not interpretable imaging stress tests are indicated. (oup.com)
  • It is the most popular isotope used for thallium nuclear cardiac stress tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • underwent
  • Of those who took the test, 12% subsequently underwent bypass grafts surgery compared with 14% of those who did not (p greater than .05). (ahajournals.org)
  • PRACTICE
  • The terms "RCT" and randomized trial are sometimes used synonymously, but the methodologically sound practice is to reserve the "RCT" name only for trials that contain control groups, in which groups receiving the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment (a placebo-controlled study) or a previously tested treatment (a positive-control study). (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Randomized trials by the Consortium have shown that just a 1-2 °C reduction in body temperature markedly increases the risk of wound infection, prolongs recovery and hospitalization, increases blood loss and transfusion requirement, and slows drug metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Why an athlete can exercise intensely for several years without symptoms until the sentinel event occurs remains unknown. (acc.org)
  • high
  • Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mistakes in interpretation are relatively common, and the failure to identify high risk features has a negative effect on the quality of patient care. (wikipedia.org)
  • prospective
  • A single-center cross-sectional study with prospective and retrospective data collection was performed that assessed habitual exercise preceding a clinically indicated CPET in children and adolescents with Fontan palliation, transposition of the great arteries following arterial switch operation (TGA), and normal cardiac anatomy without prior operation. (springermedizin.de)
  • ventricular
  • CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2005 ACC/AHA guidelines further state that CABG is the preferred treatment with other high-risk patients such as those with severe ventricular dysfunction (i.e. low ejection fraction), or diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple prospective clinical trials indicate that patients from broad groups of at risk populations who test MTWA negative will likely live ventricular event-free for 12 to 24 months after their initial MTWA test. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • Ong P, Athanasiadis A, Borgulya G, Mahrholdt H, Kaski JC, Sechtem U. High prevalence of a pathological response to acetylcholine testing in patients with stable angina pectoris and unobstructed coronary arteries. (springer.com)
  • Hospitalization
  • Randomized trials by the Consortium have shown that just a 1-2 °C reduction in body temperature markedly increases the risk of wound infection, prolongs recovery and hospitalization, increases blood loss and transfusion requirement, and slows drug metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • Research supports this idea: A review published in November 2010 in the journal Diabetes Care suggested adding only one serving of a sweetened beverage to your diet may increase your risk for type 2 diabetes by 15 percent. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • Even if you have diabetes in your family, diet and exercise can help you prevent the disease. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • Sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment (for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes). (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • For people who have endothelial dysfunction and do not see improvement with different interventions, they are actually at a 7-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • outpatient
  • For example, in terms of procedures, tests, outpatient visits, and follow-up calls, should be those intrinsic to the treatments being compared. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • While South Asians show increased classical risk factors for developing heart failure, the role of population-specific genetic risk factors has not yet been examined for this group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ischemic heart disease in women: a focus on risk factors. (springer.com)
  • While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups the overall contribution of these risk factors is very consistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Now, the markers most widely used in detection of MI are MB subtype of the enzyme creatine kinase and cardiac troponins T and I as they are more specific for myocardial injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart rate
  • The Spectral Method requires a specialized exercise protocol and proprietary electrodes and washout of beta-adrenergic blocking agents to allow the patient to achieve a target heart rate of 105-110 beats/min. (wikipedia.org)
  • models
  • For example, they have developed several accurate risk-stratification models which permit accurate comparisons across divergent patient groups (i.e., risk-adjusted comparisons amongst hospitals). (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions. (wikipedia.org)