• epidemic
  • The authors investigated the utility of both a non-treponemal (RPR) test and a treponemal (FTA-ABS) test for the diagnosis of primary syphilis during the emergence of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2-4 Mathematical models incorporating this synergy estimated that HSV-2 has been a major contributor to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (bmj.com)
  • Mozambique is a country particularly hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual risk behaviors are still greatly influenced by social norms, and much still needs to be done in order to best address the epidemic and provide care and treatment to those in need. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first governmental response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic occurred in 1988 with the establishment of four sentinel surveys in Maputo, Beira, Chimoio, and Tete to keep track of HIV prevalence within the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several campaigns and organizations have been initiated since 1986 in order to combat the HIV epidemic in various ways and by reaching various sectors of Mozambican society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, since the end of the civil war in 1992, rural areas of Mozambique continue to face repercussions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, prominently due to the inability of the nation to quickly rehabilitate as a result of inadequate funds allocated towards addressing both educational and healthcare system infrastructural repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Guzman R, Katz M. HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention. (springer.com)
  • Objectives To determine the prevalence of HIV and related behavioural risks among Iranian female sex workers (FSW) via the first national biobehavioural surveillance survey. (bmj.com)
  • Results The prevalence of HIV infection (95% CI) was 4.5% (2.4 to 8.3) overall, 4.8% (2.2 to 9.8) among those who had reported a history of drug use and 11.2% (5.4 to 21.5) among those who had a history of injection drug use. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The prevalence of HIV was considerable among FSW particularly those who had a history of drug injection. (bmj.com)
  • In fact, according to 2008 UNAIDS estimates, this southeast African nation possesses the 8th highest HIV prevalence in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to reduce the prevalence of HIV/AIDS within the country, Mozambique has partnered with numerous global organizations to provide its citizens with augmented access to antiretroviral therapy and prevention techniques, such as condom use. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with time, HIV prevalence within Mozambique began to propagate to such extraordinarily high levels that the government was forced to act in order to save as much of its poor and dying population as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalent
  • It includes a 10-year epidemiological forecast of the diagnosed prevalent cases of ankylosing spondylitis segmented by sex, age (in ten-year increments beginning at 15 years and ending at =65 years), and diagnosed prevalent cases of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, and diagnosed prevalent cases of AS segmented by HLA-B27 seropositivity status in these markets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Infections
  • The bi-directional nature of the interaction between conventional sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV has been documented in many studies. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Objectives To investigate whether observational studies of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have the capacity to assess the HIV/HSV-2 epidemiological synergy. (bmj.com)
  • The observed HIV/HSV-2 association appears more consistent with two infections sharing the same mode of transmission, rather than with HSV-2 enhancing HIV acquisition. (bmj.com)
  • The biological interactions and epidemiological synergy between HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have been intensely investigated. (bmj.com)
  • Also doctors do not routinely test people for recent infections with most diseases as they do for HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and, where relevant, other infections that pose a risk to the safety of the blood supply, such as Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium species (malaria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the nationwide introduction of ART, only cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and drugs to diminish the effects of opportunistic infections were administered to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated coinfections, such as malaria, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can also propagate the spread of HIV within a population through the weakening of the host's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for persistent HPV infections include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple partners, smoking, and poor immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Stored specimens and HLA testing: Stored blood and tissue samples from patients will be used for future research on HIV, AIDS and related medical conditions, and the immune system. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We would like to acknowledge other members of the T - Talk Study Team (H. Jonathon Rendina, Tyrel Starks, Ana Ventuneac, Ruben Jimenez, and Jonathan López Matos) and other current staff from the Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies and Training (Chris Hietikko, Tina Koo, Carlos Ponton) who were integrally involved in the development, implementation, and reporting of this study. (springer.com)
  • At the 2010 International AIDS conference presenters talked about the need for community healthcare providers to understand that if their patients have been in an HIV vaccine trial then their patients are likely to give a false positive HIV test result. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surge toward the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in women and children has additionally aided in Mozambique's aim to fulfill its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although HIV/AIDS spans across all demographic categories, and personal risk perception is generally underestimated amongst all Mozambican individuals, women and children are the groups most at-risk for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's more, women and children are more likely than men to experience a general lack of awareness of the cause, transmission, and ways of prevention of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Methods In 2010, a convenience sample of 350 MSM in Penang were recruited to participate in an anonymous, computerised survey with rapid HIV testing. (bmj.com)
  • incidence
  • In this letter to the editor information was presented concerning the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous (iv) drug users in Ohio. (cdc.gov)
  • anal
  • The participants consist of English speaking women, ages 18-24 years, who acquired HIV through heterosexual intercourse or injection drug use after the age of 9 years, reported a history of sexual and/or physical abuse prior to age 18, and engaged in vaginal or anal intercourse in the 4 months prior to screening. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The female gender, individuals with cervical/vulvar/vaginal dysplasia or cancer, infection with HPV, lifetime number of sexual partners, genital warts, cigarette smoking, receptive anal intercourse, immunodeficiency associated with transplantation and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have all been associated with this malignancy. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • study
  • To try to reduce these risks, patients in this study will be given low-dose chemotherapy that is easier for the body to tolerate and involves a shorter period of complete immune suppression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study is designed as a randomized, open label trial to evaluate the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on CD4 counts in patients with HIV infection and CD4 counts above 200 cells/mm(3). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study examined the effect of four syndemic conditions-namely, polydrug use, depression, childhood sexual abuse, and intimate partner violence-on rates of HIV transmission risk behavior (TRB) and separately, transactional sex among transgender women. (springer.com)
  • In the initial phase of this study, HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts between 200 and 500 were randomized to receive either IL-2 alone by continuous IV infusion for 5 days every 8 weeks, IL-2 plus anti-TNF antibody, or IL-2 plus thalidomide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the amended phase of this study, up to 60 patients with HIV infection and CD4 counts equal to or greater than 350 will be studied to determine the ability of prednisone to ameliorate IL-2 related toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a qualitative study using a purposive sampling methodology to interview HIV-positive female adolescents who have experienced physical and/or sexual abuse. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In our study, no significant relationship was observed between seropositivity and the HLA-DRB1 alleles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A study involving antithymocyte globulin demonstrated that CMV seropositivity is a significant predictor of patient mortality post allogeneic stem cell transplantation regardless of reactivation status. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, at this time two new studies, the STEP Study in the USA and the RV 144 study in Thailand, greatly increased the number of people who received HIV vaccinations by another 4600 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A study done on participants in the HIV Vaccine Trials Network HIV vaccination studies showed that among 2176 HIV negative participants who received a vaccine, 908 (42%) had VISP. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study of DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 phenotype found that A1-cw7-B8 was actually lower than expected relative to other A-B types, indicating that risk associated genes are located between B8 and DR3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This locus in part of the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (markers are A1, CW7, B8, BfS, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3, DQ2) therefore one study concluded that C4AQ0 could explain the increased infectivity to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • However, this procedure carries a significant risk of death, because it requires complete suppression of the immune system with high-dose chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well giving rituximab together with combination chemotherapy works in treating patients with previously untreated high- or high-intermediate-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • On the day of the first apheresis, subjects will be admitted to the hospital and will receive chemotherapy over the next five days which decreases the risk of rejection of the transferred cells by the subject's immune system and facilitates their expansion and attack of the melanoma lesions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lesions
  • The performance characteristics of these tests were influenced negatively by concomitant HIV infection and the presence of other genital ulcer disease pathogens in lesions found to be Treponema pallidum PCR positive. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • carries
  • Because each unit of blood given carries risks, a trigger level lower than that at 70 to 80 g/L is now usually used as it has been shown to have better patient outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of syndemic conditions in HIV risk among transgender women, and the need for comprehensive psychosocial interventions to improve sexual health among this population. (springer.com)
  • HIV among transgender people. (springer.com)
  • At this level, seropositivity rates in cord blood samples for HPeV1, 3, and 6 were 65%, 61%, and 71%, respectively, and did not significantly differ among the 3 genotypes (p = 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results
  • Results Four men (1.9%) tested HIV positive. (bmj.com)
  • Results Assuming no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction, the crude HIV/HSV-2 OR ranged between 1.38 and 9.93, with a pooled mean of 6.45 (95% CI 5.81 to 7.17). (bmj.com)
  • Further, the widely-held belief that illnesses and disease are results of witchcraft and, as such, should be treated by traditional healers instead of local healthcare facilities may lead to the inadequate receipt of services to diminish the risk of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • status
  • TRB was defined as the number of condomless penetrative sex events with a casual or main partner of discordant or unknown HIV status. (springer.com)
  • people
  • 1 Over 800 million people are at the risk of acquiring schistosomiasis in 76 endemic countries, with 46 of these countries in Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • VISP is especially a concern in vaccine trials for HIV vaccine research because people who give a positive result in an HIV test, even if that result is because of a vaccine and not because of an infection, may face discrimination because of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV vaccine research happens worldwide to ensure that any vaccine which researchers develop could be used for people worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who participate in vaccine trials which test HIV vaccines may exhibit VISP for years or for the rest of their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the year 2001, HIV had infected more than one million people, 53,000 of which were children under 18 years of age and 570,000 of which were women. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • In at least 2 diseases, the risk of autoimmune disease extends beyond the class II region of the haplotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • citation needed] Regardless of whether they are effective at stimulating the production of antibodies which fight HIV, they usually do cause the body to produce antibodies which standard HIV tests recognize as the antibodies which an HIV positive person would produce in response to HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Cross-sectional observational studies were simulated by sampling individuals from the population to assess resulting crude and adjusted ORs of the HIV/HSV-2 association. (bmj.com)
  • With 1,600,000 Mozambicans (11.5 percent of the population) living with HIV, 990,000 of which are women and children, Mozambique's government realizes that there is much work to be done on the path towards the eradication of this infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • These effects may increase the susceptibility of women with female genital schistosomiasis to HIV. (scielo.org.za)
  • positive
  • Additionally, HIV testing is recommended in the setting of risk factors for such, and CD4 levels evaluated in HIV-positive patients. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Vaccine-induced seropositivity or VISP is the phenomenon wherein a person who has received a vaccine against a disease would thereafter give a positive or reactive test result for having that disease when tested for it, despite not actually having the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A person who is HIV negative, and has received an HIV vaccine, and who then tests as positive in an HIV test is said to be positive because of VISP. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an HIV-negative person exhibits VISP and gets an HIV-positive result from a test then that person may have difficulty donating blood or negotiating for a life insurance policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from Africa, Asia, North America, and South America have said that getting local government and media support of the research is essential in addition to creating facilities for distinguishing between HIV positive individuals and individuals exhibiting VISP. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • In 2001, South Africa became a signatory to the World Health Assembly resolution 54.19 which urged all member states to achieve the minimum goal of 75% treatment coverage in school-age children at risk by 2010. (scielo.org.za)
  • To assess preferred intervention delivery strategies for an abuse-related intervention such as length of treatment, incorporation of support/guardian figure, incorporation of issues related to HIV, and incorporation of specific sexual risk behavior modules. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV could additionally spread through the use of unclean needles and syringes for injections and treatment within Mozambican healthcare settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Tonsillar biopsy: Examination of tonsil tissue may provide information on the effects of IL-2 on the immune system and the expression of HIV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • women
  • Baral SD, Poteat T, Strömdahl S, Wirtz AL, Guadamuz TE, Beyrer C. Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (springer.com)
  • tests
  • Many HIV tests work not by checking a person's blood for HIV, but rather by determining whether the body's own antibodies against HIV are present in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 epidemiological synergy: misguided observational evidence? (bmj.com)
  • HIV vaccines have been tested continually worldwide since then, but thus far, no one has developed any vaccine which reduces a person's risk of contracting HIV if exposed to that virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • combat
  • citation needed] Most HIV vaccines are designed with the intent to promote the body's own production of antibodies which would combat HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • A*0101 appears to alter risk for type 1 diabetes but not Cw7-B8. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type 1 diabetes example shows the inherent difficulty in the use of linkage analysis alone to cipher risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Also, the donor's lymphocytes will be removed from the rest of the stem cells to be transplanted, reducing the risk of GvHD. (clinicaltrials.gov)