• guanine
  • Four consecutive guanine residues can form a quadruplex in RNA by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds to form a "Hoogsteen ring" (See Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • In yeast, a K51R mutation in eIF5A, in which lysine at position 51 is replaced by arginine ( 14 ), not only inhibits hypusine formation but also cannot rescue eIF5A knockouts ( 15 ) and has reduced affinity for the ribosome ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sequence
  • In 1993, Koonin and Rudd predicted the spoU gene product to be an RNA methyltransferase based on the similarity of its deduced amino acid sequence to that of Streptomyces azureus Tsr [ 1 ], which catalyzes methylation of the ribose of adenosine (A) at position 1067 in 23S rRNA to form 2'- O -methyladenosine (Am1067) [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • translation
  • This finding unveils a previously unknown role of cofactors for translation arrest and demonstrates the existence of a functional link between the exit tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome. (pnas.org)
  • Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. (pnas.org)
  • inhibition
  • We suggest that the proximal consequence of these LTV1 mutations is inhibition of the cytoplasmic maturation of 40S subunits and that nuclear retention of pre-40S subunits is a downstream consequence of the failure to release and recycle critical factors back to the nucleus. (genetics.org)
  • helix
  • The double helix is the dominant tertiary structure for biological DNA, and is also a possible structure for RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because minor groove triples are capable of stably packing a free loop and helix, they are key elements in the structure of large ribonucleotides, including the group I intron, the group II intron, and the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other notable examples of major groove triplexes include (i) the catalytic core of the group II intron shown in the figure at left (ii) a catalytically essential triple helix observed in human telomerase RNA and (iii) the SAM-II riboswitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • If a mutant bacterium is relA− it is said to be relaxed and no regulation of RNA production due to amino acid absence is seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of RF3, the inhibitory action of RF1 on ribosome recycling can be reduced by increasing the ribosome-recycling factor (RRF) concentration, suggesting that whatever the action of RRF may be, it is incompatible with the presence of RF1 on the ribosome. (asmscience.org)
  • molecules
  • RNA and DNA molecules are capable of diverse functions ranging from molecular recognition to catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • RIBOSOME biogenesis is a major biosynthetic activity of eukaryotic cells and a significant rate-limiting factor in cell growth and proliferation. (genetics.org)
  • elongation
  • This chapter presents a detailed analysis of cryo-EM results, which reveal conformational changes of both elongation factors (EFs)-G and the ribosome. (asmscience.org)
  • complex
  • It is thought that (p)ppGpp may affect the stability of the open complex formed by RNA polymerase on DNA and therefore affect promoter clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we present the crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of release factor RF2 in complex with its cognate UGA stop codon in the 70S ribosome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Compared to the crystal structure of isolated T. thermophilus RF2 ( 15 ), the factor in complex with the ribosome has undergone major conformational changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The model was used for docking into a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a translating YidC-ribosome complex carrying the YidC substrate F O c. (elifesciences.org)
  • binds
  • that binds Crm1 directly in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner ( T homas and K utay 2003 ) and is thought to recruit Crm1 to the pre-60S subunit in the nucleoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • Structure
  • The unique structure of quadruplex regions in RNA may serve different functions in a biological system. (wikipedia.org)
  • motifs
  • They reported that the three RNA 2'- O -methyltransferases have three conserved motifs, termed motifs 1, 2 and 3 ( Figure 3 ) [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • factors
  • More than 150 trans -acting factors have been identified by genetic and proteomic studies with roles in ribosome biogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • Both precursor subunits exit the nucleus accompanied by a small contingent of biogenesis factors that are presumed to function either in export or in subsequent cytoplasmic maturation steps. (genetics.org)
  • From the comparison of the binding of all these factors to the ribosome, it appears that they use the same anchoring points on the ribosome and make contact with the same GTPase-associated center while differing substantially in their functions. (asmscience.org)
  • studies
  • The existence of the SpoU-TrmD (SPOUT) RNA methyltransferase superfamily was first predicted by bioinformatics studies [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • major
  • The major donor of activated methyl groups is S-adenosylmethionine, which is synthesized by the transfer of an adenosyl group from ATP to the sulfur atom of methionine. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • This ∼64-subunit, ATP-dependent proteolytic machine employs several Ub receptors that recognize the Ub polymers and then degrades the modified target concomitant with the DUB -directed release of the Ub moieties for reuse ( Finley, 2009 ). (plantcell.org)