• mammalian
  • Here, we systematically mined 79 fungal genomes and provide the first evidence that four of the five main mammalian families of GPCRs, namely Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled, are present in Fungi and found 142 novel sequences between them. (diva-portal.org)
  • To examine this, we used a chemical-genetic approach to selectively activate IRE1 in mammalian cells and tested how artificial IRE1 signaling affected the fate of misfolded P23H rhodopsin linked to photoreceptor cell death. (nih.gov)
  • The earliest genetically targeted method that used light to control rhodopsin-sensitized neurons was reported in January 2002, by Boris Zemelman (now at UT Austin) and Gero Miesenböck, who employed Drosophila rhodopsin cultured mammalian neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal rhodopsins
  • All animal rhodopsins arose (by gene duplication and divergence) late in the history of the large GPCR [G-Protein Coupled Receptor] gene family, which itself arose after the divergence of plants, fungi, choanflagellates and sponges from the earliest animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peter Hegemann, studying the light response of green algae at the University of Regensbug, had discovered photocurrents that were too fast to be explained by the classic g-protein-coupled animal rhodopsins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • The chromophore maintains essentially the same orientation as in rhodopsin in all the intermediates of bleaching: bathorhodopsin (prelumirhodopsin), lumirhodopsin, and metarhodopsins I and II. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments show the rhodopsin-digitonin micelle to be markedly asymmetric, with the chromophore lying parallel to its long axis. (rupress.org)
  • Membrane
  • Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). (springer.com)
  • The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). (springer.com)
  • Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. (sciencemag.org)
  • We describe Anion Channel Rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2000
  • Once bleached, rhodopsin is regenerated metabolically in a multistep process called the visual cycle, involving photoreceptors and the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ( Saari, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • ADRP
  • In this study I have developed a cellular model that can mimic the gain-of function and dominant-negative disease mechanisms in rhodopsin ADRP patients. (bl.uk)
  • SRII
  • There are two sensory rhodopsins in any one halophilic archaeon, one (SRI) that responds positively to orange light but negatively to blue light, the other (SRII) that responds only negatively to blue light. (wikipedia.org)
  • recoverin
  • With recoverin present, it exists between GRK1 and rhodopsin and it was shown that when bound competition between GRK1 and transducin suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • F 1 hybrid mice, carrying one normal and one variant Rpe65 gene, had intermediate levels of the corresponding protein and showed intermediate rhodopsin regeneration kinetics and an intermediate LDS. (jneurosci.org)
  • cDNA
  • A) Wild-type or P23H rhodopsin cDNA was expressed in HEK293 cells as indicated, and rhodopsin protein levels and mobility were detected by SDS-PAGE separation and immunoblotting. (nih.gov)
  • B) A 0.1-μg amount of wild-type or P23H rhodopsin cDNA was expressed in HEK293 cells, and the subcellular localization of rhodopsin was visualized by immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy (shown in green). (nih.gov)
  • structural
  • Although Rh7 has nearly all important features of a functional Rhodopsin, it differs from other Rhodopsins in its genomic and structural properties, suggesting it might have an overall different role than other known Rhodopsins. (peerj.com)
  • He contributed to the field of biophysics and biochemistry through his extensive research in rhodopsin and structural biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformational
  • When light falls on rhodopsin, it undergoes a series of conformational changes ultimately generating electrical signals which are carried to the brain via the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Previous studies have shown that the apical surface targeting of rhodopsin requires the dynein light chain, Tctex-1, which binds directly to both dynein intermediate chain (IC) and rhodopsin. (wiley.com)
  • amino
  • In rhodopsin, the aldehyde group of retinal is covalently linked to the amino group of a lysine residue on the protein in a protonated Schiff base (-NH+=CH-). When rhodopsin absorbs light, its retinal cofactor isomerizes from the 11-cis to the all-trans configuration, and the protein subsequently undergoes a series of relaxations to accommodate the altered shape of the isomerized cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the amino acid sequence of bovine rhodopsin, a series of peptides from the C-terminus (Rhod-4 and Rhod-1) and external loops (Rhod-10) were synthesized. (biochemj.org)
  • retinas
  • When the rhodopsin content was equalized by using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, the reaction with anti-peptide antisera to the C-terminal octapeptide (residues 341-348) is severely decreased in the rcdl-dog retinas. (biochemj.org)
  • Treatment of retinas with 1.0 mM-NaF, a phosphatase inhibitor, or pretreatment with alkaline and acid phosphatases does alter the reaction of the rhodopsin with anti-rhodopsin antisera. (biochemj.org)
  • proteolytic
  • Our findings reveal the diversity of proteolytic mechanisms used by IRE1 to eliminate misfolded rhodopsin. (nih.gov)
  • The results of mixing experiments suggest that this is not due to proteolytic clipping of the rhodopsin C-terminus from the affected dogs. (biochemj.org)
  • outer
  • Thousands of rhodopsin molecules are found in each outer segment disc of the host rod cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • If rhodopsin itself is markedly asymmetric, for which there is some evidence, then, since in the rod outer segments its chromophores lie parallel to the disk membranes, the molecules themselves must lie with their long axes parallel to the membranes. (rupress.org)
  • known
  • A) All known Rhodopsins have a distinct absorption maxima ranging from UV light (331 nm) to visible green light (515 nm) (adapted from Stavenga & Arikawa (2008) ). (peerj.com)
  • B) While Rh2 is expressed in fly's ocelli, all other known Rhodopsins are primarily expressed in different receptor cells of the compound eye (modified from Helfrich-Förster (2014) and Grebler (2015) ). (peerj.com)
  • found
  • The Rhodopsin family then expanded greatly in Metazoans while the cAMP receptor family is found in 3 invertebrate species and lost in the vertebrates. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found that IRE1 signaling robustly promoted the degradation of misfolded P23H rhodopsin without affecting its wild-type counterpart. (nih.gov)
  • We also found that IRE1 used both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways to remove P23H rhodopsin. (nih.gov)
  • We found that, in contrast to previous assertions, LDS does not correlate with the maximal retinal content of rhodopsin present after dark adaptation. (jneurosci.org)