• Vascular Endoth
  • 2001, "Antibodies Against Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Improve Early Renal Dysfunction in Experiment Diabetes", J. Am. Soc. (patents.com)
  • 1999, "Increased Renal Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Its Receptor VEGFR-2 in Experimental Diabetes", Diabetes, 48:2229-2239. (patents.com)
  • 2002, "Amelioration of Long-Term Renal Changes in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice by a Neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody", Diabetes, 51:3090-3094. (patents.com)
  • Methods
  • Sensitive psychophysical examinations, such as contrast sensitivity 4- 6 and colour vision, 7, 8 and also electrophysiological methods including electroretinography (ERG) 9- 11 and visual evoked potentials (VEP), 12- 15 clearly show early abnormalities to be a potential primary consequence of hyperglycaemia before the onset of the retinopathy. (bmj.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy were included in this open parallel-group study, and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were included as control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Results from the various studies are often not directly comparable because of their different assessment methods in the various sections of the ocular vasculature and differences in the study population concerning the patient disease type, duration, and stage. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods: This study examined 1324 patients (784 males and 540 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (scirp.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The mean area under the curve glucose and the within-day glucose variability (SD and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGE]) during the DCCT were assessed to see whether they contributed to the risk of retinopathy and nephropathy by year 4 of the EDIC. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -This cross-sectional study included 2,355 type 1 diabetic patients from the FinnDiane (Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy) study. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods of treating diabetes in mammals, particularly humans, by blocking or inhibiting VEGF-mediated activity. (patents.com)
  • Several registers have reported improved glycaemic control over time, 4 , 5 and it has been proposed that benchmarking activity, consisting of actively identifying problems and adopting systematic improvement methods (including reporting of results by centre), has contributed to improving patient outcomes. (mja.com.au)
  • Several recent reports have examined methods that may facilitate optimal delivery of this type of care. (acpjc.org)
  • glycaemic control
  • To assess glycaemic control, anthropometry and insulin regimens in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. (mja.com.au)
  • The known International diabetes registries report that many young people with type 1 diabetes do not meet recommended targets for glycaemic control. (mja.com.au)
  • The new 73% of Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes do not meet the recommended target for glycaemic control. (mja.com.au)
  • The implications Strategies for improving glycaemic control in young people with diabetes are urgently needed to prevent the acute and chronic complications of this disorder. (mja.com.au)
  • Furthermore, most previous studies have not taken into consideration the background of glycaemic control or the duration of the diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • glucose
  • Patients using a pump or a multiple-injection regimen have a basal insulin (taken through the pump or with the injection of a long-acting insulin analogue) and a premeal rapid-acting insulin, the dose of which may be determined as a function of the carbohydrate count plus the correction (to adjust for how high the premeal glucose level is). (medscape.com)
  • Is the patient's diabetes generally well controlled, with near-normal blood glucose levels? (medscape.com)
  • Retinal blood flow may fluctuate significantly with fluctuating plasma glucose levels, which may contribute to the microvascular changes seen in diabetic retinopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Looking at these partially inconsistent results of blood flow alterations in diabetes, it has to be noted that glucose and insulin plasma levels may have a considerable influence on retinal blood flow. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 8 ) reported that a pronounced reduction in plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, induced by administration of insulin, leads to a significant reduction in retinal blood flow associated with a normalization of vessel reactivity in response to hyperoxia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Glucose variability in the DCCT did not predict the development of retinopathy or nephropathy by EDIC year 4. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our goal was to establish whether the follow-up study also unearths a longer-term relationship between glucose variability during the DCCT and subsequent retinopathy and nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After an average period of 6.5 years enrollment in the DCCT, patients were offered intensive glucose management and were asked to continue with follow-up as part of the EDIC study ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is not unusual for people with undiagnosed diabetes to be constantly thirsty, drink large quantities of water, and urinate frequently as their bodies try to get rid of the extra glucose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the same time that the body is trying to get rid of glucose from the blood, the cells are starving for glucose and sending signals to the body to eat more food, thus making patients extremely hungry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brittle diabetics are a subgroup of Type I where patients have frequent and rapid swings of blood sugar levels between hyperglycemia (a condition where there is too much glucose or sugar in the blood) and hypoglycemia (a condition where there are abnormally low levels of glucose or sugar in the blood). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this 1-year study by Yki-Järvinen and colleagues, blood glucose control was excellent in the group treated with metformin and bedtime insulin, but it is possible that patients will not maintain the same degree of glycemic control beyond 1 year and might require the addition of other oral agents or the use of multiple daily insulin injections. (acpjc.org)
  • Consequently, the sex, the diabetes duration, and the blood glucose control have been matched between the two groups on the basis of the selection criteria above (table 1). (bmj.com)
  • Thus, a primary goal in the management of diabetes is the regulation of blood glucose to achieve near-normal blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both the quantity and the type or source of carbohydrate found in foods influence postprandial glucose level ( 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although most experts agree that the total carbohydrate intake from a meal or snack is a relatively reliable predictor of postprandial blood glucose ( 18 , 20 - 22 ), the impact and relative importance that the type or source of carbohydrate has on postprandial glucose level has continued to be an area of debate ( 23 - 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The specific type of carbohydrate (e.g., starch versus sucrose) present in a particular food does not always predict its effect on blood glucose ( 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The term diabetes includes several different metabolic disorders that all, if left untreated, result in abnormally high concentration of a sugar called glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment goals are related to effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids, to minimize the risk of long-term consequences associated with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Ischaemia, reduced protein synthesis, depleted myoinositol, and high sorbitol levels have been demonstrated in patients with diabetes and may result in nerve fibre loss in peripheral nerves. (bmj.com)
  • glycemic
  • OBJECTIVE This study analyzed data from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study to see whether longer-term follow-up of Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) patients reveals a role for glycemic instability in the development of microvascular complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After 1 year, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated with bedtime insulin plus metformin did not gain weight, had fewer hypoglycemic episodes, and had better glycemic control than those treated with bedtime insulin plus glyburide, metformin and glyburide, or morning insulin. (acpjc.org)
  • Our findings, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, indicate that from 1999 to 2000, only 36% of adults with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. met this glycemic control goal ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The current report updates our previous findings of trends in glycemic control from NHANES III (1988-1994) to NHANES 1999-2002. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We also appraise the current status of ethnic disparities in diabetes control by examining whether ethnic differences in glycemic control exist among adults aged ≥20 years with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To evaluate ethnic disparities in glycemic control from 1988 to 2002, we calculated the percentages of patients achieving glycemic control for each racial group in the two surveys. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We then established multivariable logistic regression models to compare the relative odds of glycemic control among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites in the NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002 surveys separately, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, and antidiabetes medication use. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To explore the trend in glycemic control, we fitted logistic regression models to compare the odds of glycemic control among subjects in NHANES 1999-2002 with that of diabetic subjects in NHANES III, stratified by ethnic group and controlling for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, and antidiabetic medications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While not statistically significant, non-Hispanic blacks tended to have worse glycemic control than non-Hispanic whites in NHANES 1999-2002 (0.64 [0.38-1. ( Table 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Comparing NHANES 1999-2002 with NHANES III findings, glycemic control between the two surveys did not change for non-Hispanic blacks (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.64-1. and Mexican Americans (1.22 [0.80-1., after risk factor adjustment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The DCCT provided quantifiable justification to healthcare providers that the additional expenses associated with intensive glycemic control and close monitoring of diabetes are cost effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) achieved similar conclusions when it studied glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • UKPDS
  • In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 33 (UKPDS 33), a gradual and progressive worsening of diabetes control was seen ( 2 ). (acpjc.org)
  • 1998
  • In 1998, neuropilin 1 and neuropilin 2 were shown to act as VEGF receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • citation needed] People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Patients who maintain rigorous control of their diabetes are less likely to develop severe and extensive periodontal disease. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, which is more common in type 2 DM and is mainly the result of dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • The initial pathological changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR) are presumed to occur in small vessels, and involve endothelial cell and pericyte loss. (bmj.com)
  • The microvascular injury in DR has been linked to upregulation of several cytokines such as IL-6, IL1- β , and VEGF and pathological overexpression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although periodontal disease is primarily associated with dental plaque, and although there are other factors leading to it (Table 2), periodontal disease is affected by pathological events related to diabetes. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • proximal
  • So that it appears the presence of the DQA1*03:DQB1*04 is of West Pacific Rim origins in Japanese and proximal Siberians, but unfortunately there is no current typing of these haplotypes in the Taiwan aboriginal population. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.03
  • The superior segment retardation in patients with diabetes was lower than in the control group, based on the superior integral (0.19 (SD 0.06) v 0.23 (0.04) mm 2 , p=0.03) and the superior average (71.0 (11.05) v 84.27 (10.56) μm, p=0.007) parameters. (bmj.com)
  • Fathers of patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had reduced overall survival (log-rank P = 0.04) and reduced cardiovascular survival (log-rank P = 0.03). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 7%) were 43.8% for non-Hispanic whites, 41.2% for non-Hispanic blacks, and 34.5% for Mexican Americans ( P = 0.03 for differences across groups, Table 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In NHANES 1999-2002, the corresponding percentages changed to 48.4% for non-Hispanic whites, 36.5% for non-Hispanic blacks, and 34.2% for Mexican Americans ( P = 0.03, Table 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)