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  • small
  • The emboli break off vessel walls or cardiac valves and travel downstream until the vessel becomes too small, and the emboli or plaque simply gets stuck. (jomtonline.com)
  • vasculature
  • Using a weak statistical learning approach, we construct textons for retinal vasculature by designing filters that are specifically tuned to the structural and photometric properties of retinal vessels. (osapublishing.org)
  • Examination of the retinal vasculature is noninvasive and provides a means to study the structural and pathological changes of the microcirculation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Apelin activates inside the cell transduction cascades (ERKs, Akt, and p70S6kinase phosphorylation), which lead to the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels It is interesting that knockout of apelin gene is associated with a delay in the development of the retinal vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • The eye offers noninvasive direct access to the microvasculature and, through high-quality imaging and software-assisted grading methods, the retinal vessel may be evaluated with high reproducibility [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • artery
  • The visual loss caused by retinal vein and artery occlusions is painless. (rnib.org.uk)
  • The main cause of retinal artery or vein occlusion is atherosclerosis. (rnib.org.uk)
  • The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central retinal artery is formed from the proximal part of the hyaloid artery after atrophy of its distal part has formed the hyaloid canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central retinal artery supplies all the nerve fibers that form the optic nerve, which carries the visual information to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, including those that reach over the fovea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus if the central retinal artery gets occluded, there is complete loss of vision in that eye even though the fovea is not affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • However it should be remembered that the Cilio retinal artery itself is a branch of the Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries which is derived from the Ophthalmic Artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, its possible for the cilio retinal artery itself to occlude causing significant visual loss in the perfused macula region (surrounding visual field will remain intact). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ophthalmic artery (OA) - a unique vessel with intracranial and extracranial segments is used as pressure sensor and as a natural pair of scales for absolute ICP value in mmHg or mmH2O measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • To investigate the association of vessel tortuosity with severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography. (ovid.com)
  • measurements
  • This is a cross-sectional study based on 74 patients (145 eyes) with RP who had visual field assessment with Goldmann permeter and good-quality retinal images for vessel size measurements identified by retrospective medial chart review (1973-2007) in the electrophysiology clinic of a tertiary eye hospital in Australia. (nih.gov)
  • Because the vessel measurements have been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular and other systemic diseases, understanding the determinants of these familial relationships could have important health benefits. (arvojournals.org)
  • To assess whether intersubject variability in healthy circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements acquired with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) may be reduced by considering the fovea position, either alone or together with a compensation based on the retinal vessel distribution (RVD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Reproducibility of the measurements of the results using the new method and comparison with those using interactive vessel analysis (IVAN) were performed in normal Japanese eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • detachment
  • The risk of retinal detachment is greatest in the first 6 weeks following a vitreous detachment, but can occur over 3 months after the event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of retinal tears and detachment associated with vitreous detachment is higher in patients with myopic retinal degeneration, lattice degeneration, and a familial or personal history of previous retinal tears/detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapy is not required or indicated in posterior vitreous detachment, unless there are associated retinal tears, which need to be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leakage can lead to exudative retinal detachment, also known as exudative retinopathy in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attachment can cause traction retinal detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Retinal vessel attenuation is a key finding in the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), but there have been no studies to determine whether quantitative measurement of this retinal sign is useful. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative retinal vessel caliber measurement may be a useful additional clinical marker for monitoring progression of RP or potential treatment response. (nih.gov)
  • abnormal vessels
  • Homozygous negative Pax2 mutation is lethal, but heterozygote mutants showed many symptoms of papillorenal syndrome, including optic nerve dysplasia with abnormal vessels emerging from the periphery of the optic cup and small dysplasic kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • tortuosity
  • Compared with healthy eyes, vessel tortuosity increased as DR severity was more in NPDR, but decreased in PDR (P = 0.033). (ovid.com)
  • Among all parameters, statistically significant difference between no DR and mild NPDR was observed only in vessel tortuosity, especially within the 1.5 mm area of superficial retinal layer (P = 0.011). (ovid.com)
  • Vessel tortuosity increased as the stage of NPDR was more severe, but decreased in PDR. (ovid.com)
  • The vessel tortuosity determined using optical coherence tomography angiography might be a useful parameter indicating the progression to PDR, circumventing the risk from invasive conventional angiography. (ovid.com)
  • small vessels
  • It is relevant to study the role of microvasculature in noncardiovascular mortality, because of the established link between small vessels and diseases such as diabetes mellitus, dementia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The retinal vessels are abnormal or absent, in some cases having small vessels exiting the periphery of the disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevation
  • Optic disc dysplasia is noted by an ill-defined inferior excavation, convoluted origin of the superior retinal vessels, excessive number of vessels, infrapapillary pigmentary disturbance, and slight band of retinal elevation adjacent to the disk. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • While it's possible to be unaware that you've had a vessel occlusion, it usually changes your vision in some way, though this may improve with time. (rnib.org.uk)
  • The retinal changes are easily identified by ophthalmoscopy, which is performed under general anesthesia if the child is very young. (wikipedia.org)
  • atherosclerosis
  • If someone has narrowing of their retinal arteries due to atherosclerosis, this can cause the hardened arteries to press onto the nearby veins. (rnib.org.uk)
  • In the Western world, atherosclerosis is a more frequent cause of obstruction of the aortic arch vessels than Takayasu's arteritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • With improvements in fundus imaging technology and the increasing use of digital images in screening and diagnosis, the issue of automated analysis of retinal images is gaining more serious attention. (osapublishing.org)
  • vitreous
  • In absence of retinal tears, the usual progress is that the vitreous humor will continue to age and liquefy and floaters will usually become less and less noticeable, and eventually most symptoms will completely disappear. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Static and dynamic retinal vessel analysis are promising tools for early risk evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Abramoff is referred to as "The Retinator" because of his work on improving automated medical diagnostic algorithms, translating these into the frontlines of care and improved healthcare productivity, as well as unraveling the causes of retinal diseases and blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • In RP patients, the severity of visual field loss is correlated with retinal vessel attenuation. (nih.gov)
  • Renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Vesicoureteral reflux The severity varies, but the most severe form results in an enlarged disc where vessels exit from the periphery instead of the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • By four weeks, the increase in neural cell death was associated with reduced thickness of the inner and outer nuclear layers and a decline in retinal function as measured by electroretinograms. (nih.gov)
  • risk
  • These are all risk factors associated with retinal microangiopathy found in epidemiological studies [ 3 , 4 ] and in animal models [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)