• oxidative stress
  • This study was designed to investigate effects of various carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein) on RPE cells subjected to either hypoxia or oxidative stress, in order to determine if there is effect specificity for macular pigment carotenoids. (mdpi.com)
  • The pathogenesis of GA is multifactorial and is generally thought to be triggered by intrinsic and extrinsic stressors of the poorly regenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), particularly oxidative stress caused by the high metabolic demand of photoreceptors, photo-oxidation, and environmental stressors such as cigarette smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • When seen in section, each cell consists of an outer non-pigmented part containing a large oval nucleus and an inner pigmented portion which extends as a series of straight thread-like processes between the rods, this being especially the case when the eye is exposed to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These findings contribute to the understanding of the protective mechanisms attributable to retinal xanthophylls in eye health and retinopathies. (mdpi.com)
  • structures
  • Some species also possess iridophores or leucophores, which do not contain true pigments, but light-reflective structures that give iridescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • He completed his Ph.D. in the field of neuroscience and began a career focusing on the physiology and biophysics of retinal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • In the transition from darkness to light suddenly, large amount of 11-cis retinal is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal initiates the phototransduction pathway through which the brain detects light. (wikipedia.org)
  • build
  • Drusen, from the German word for node or geode (singular, "Druse"), are tiny yellow or white accumulations of extracellular material that build up between Bruch's membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • seen
  • A classification of anatomical variants of tapeta lucida defines four types: Retinal tapetum, as seen in teleosts, crocodiles, marsupials and fruit bats. (wikipedia.org)