• macular
  • Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a key mediator of ocular inflammation and its interaction with the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may be a driving force in vitreoretinal disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and diabetic retinopathy. (ovid.com)
  • blood-retinal
  • Under inflammatory conditions, the ability of RPE cells to maintain the blood-retinal barrier and immune privilege may be lost and proliferation of RPE cells is facilitated. (ovid.com)
  • Anstadt B, Blair NP, Rusin M, Cunha-Vaz JG, Tso MO (1982) Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier by sodium iodate: kinetic vitreous fluorophotometry and horseradish peroxidase trace studies. (springer.com)
  • retinol
  • All-trans-retinol is not photoactive and therefore must be reconverted to 11-cis-retinal before it can recombine with opsin to form an active visual pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other enzymes of the visual cycle complete the reactions necessary to oxidize and esterify all-trans-retinol to a retinyl ester (RPE65's substrate) and to oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal (the required photoactive visual pigment component). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These findings contribute to the understanding of the protective mechanisms attributable to retinal xanthophylls in eye health and retinopathies. (mdpi.com)
  • structures
  • Some species also possess iridophores or leucophores, which do not contain true pigments, but light-reflective structures that give iridescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects
  • Ashburn F, Pilkerton AR, Rao NA, Marak GE (1980) The effects of iodate and iodoacetate on the retinal adhesion. (springer.com)
  • loss
  • Amelanism (also known as amelanosis) is a pigmentation abnormality characterized by the lack of pigments called melanins, commonly associated with a genetic loss of tyrosinase function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) is not only one of the most active phagocytic cell types in the body but also has a high rate of autophagy. (arvojournals.org)
  • When seen in section, each cell consists of an outer non-pigmented part containing a large oval nucleus and an inner pigmented portion which extends as a series of straight thread-like processes between the rods, this being especially the case when the eye is exposed to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • In the transition from darkness to light suddenly, large amount of 11-cis retinal is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal initiates the phototransduction pathway through which the brain detects light. (wikipedia.org)
  • build
  • Drusen, from the German word for node or geode (singular, "Druse"), are tiny yellow or white accumulations of extracellular material that build up between Bruch's membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • seen
  • A classification of anatomical variants of tapeta lucida defines four types: Retinal tapetum, as seen in teleosts, crocodiles, marsupials and fruit bats. (wikipedia.org)