• blood-retinal
  • Anstadt B, Blair NP, Rusin M, Cunha-Vaz JG, Tso MO (1982) Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier by sodium iodate: kinetic vitreous fluorophotometry and horseradish peroxidase trace studies. (springer.com)
  • Epithelial transport: As mentioned above, RPE compose the blood-retinal barrier, the epithelia has tight junctions between the lateral surfaces and implies an isolation of the inner retina from the systemic influences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsin
  • All-trans-retinol is not photoactive and therefore must be reconverted to 11-cis-retinal before it can recombine with opsin to form an active visual pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11-cis retinal is covalently linked to the opsin receptor via Schiff base forming retinylidene protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When struck by a photon, 11-cis retinal undergoes photoisomerization to all-trans retinal which changes the conformation of the opsin GPCR leading to signal transduction cascades which causes closure of cyclic GMP-gated cation channel, and hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinol
  • 1985;27:225-45 Biesalski HK, Nohr D New aspects in vitamin a metabolism: the role of retinyl esters as systemic and local sources for retinol in mucous epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other enzymes of the visual cycle complete the reactions necessary to oxidize and esterify all-trans-retinol to a retinyl ester (RPE65's substrate) and to oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal (the required photoactive visual pigment component). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pax6
  • Here we show in mice that the transcription factor PAX6, well-known for its retina-promoting activity, also plays a crucial role in early pigment epithelium development. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The transcription factors Pax2 and Pax6 are co-expressed in the entire optic vesicle (OV) prior and concomitant with the establishment of distinct neuroretinal, retinal, pigmented-epithelial and optic-stalk progenitor domains, suggesting redundant functions during retinal determination. (biologists.org)
  • Later, Pax6 expression becomes restricted to the lens, corneal and conjunctive epithelia, iris and inner portion of the NR ( Walther and Gruss, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • outer
  • When seen in section, each cell consists of an outer non-pigmented part containing a large oval nucleus and an inner pigmented portion which extends as a series of straight thread-like processes between the rods, this being especially the case when the eye is exposed to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This comes not directly from the visual cycle but from several retinal pools of retinal binding proteins which are connected to each other by the transportation and reaction steps of the visual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • A 2014 study found that LEDs cause retinal damage even in settings where they are used indirectly, such as household light bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • August 25, 1933 - August 28, 2012) was an Israeli ophthalmologist specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of retinal and genetic eye diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • inner
  • Aspects of vitamin A metabolism in sensory epithelia (inner ear, olfactory bulbus, pineal gland).Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • In the transition from darkness to light suddenly, large amount of 11-cis retinal is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light and electron microscopic analysis was used to examine retinal ultrastructure. (jneurosci.org)
  • Blue-light hazard is defined as the potential for a photochemically-induced retinal injury resulting from electromagnetic radiation exposure at wavelengths primarily between 400 and 450 nm. (wikipedia.org)