• RGCs
  • Through experimentation, the researchers were able to distinguish individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which bear most of the responsibility of relaying visual information to the brain. (photonics.com)
  • David Williams, dean for research in arts, sciences, and engineering and the William G. Allyn Chair for Medical Optics at the University of Rochester, said by the time retinal nerve fiber thickness has changed detectably, a patient may have lost 100,000 RGCs or more. (photonics.com)
  • Not only did this technique allow the group to visualize individual RGCs, but structures within the cells, like nuclei, could also be distinguished in animals. (photonics.com)
  • The hope is that if they can achieve that level of resolution in humans, they will be able to assess glaucoma before the retinal nerve fiber thins - and even before any RGCs die - by detecting size and structure changes in RGC cell bodies. (photonics.com)
  • While RGCs were the main focus of the investigations, they are just one type of cell that can be imaged using this new technique. (photonics.com)
  • Not only RGCs, but potentially other translucent cell classes and cellular structures. (photonics.com)
  • We show that in the chick embryo, stratified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are themselves responsible for providing the signals that control the number of RGCs that are generated, both by inhibiting the generation of new ganglion cells and by killing incoming migratory ganglion cells. (biologists.org)
  • Selective toxicological ablation of RGCs in the chick embryo resulted in the achronic generation of ganglion cells, which eventually led to the repopulation of the ganglion cell layer and a large decrease in the physiological cell death affecting postmitotic migratory neurones. (biologists.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (dovepress.com)
  • We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. (dovepress.com)
  • Artemin, a specific ligand for GFRα3, has a neuroprotective effect on axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo and in vitro via activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that TrkB mRNA levels are reduced in RGCs soon after transection of the optic nerve and before the onset of cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as a model, the mechanisms that pattern dendritic development are beginning to emerge. (springer.com)
  • Ultimately, this information must be encoded into the spike trains of the 15-20 different retinal ganglion cell types whose axons reach a similar number of central brain nuclei.Previously, we have shown that the intrinsic physiological properties of RGCs vary widely. (arvojournals.org)
  • For example, cat alpha RGCs are capable of spiking in excess of 300Hz whereas the kappa cell can only sustain 40Hz (O'Brien et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using whole cell patch clamp recording techniques combined with confocal reconstruction of recorded cells, we have characterized the intrinsic physiological properties of 130 rat RGCs. (arvojournals.org)
  • ipRGCs
  • The many blind people who do entrain to the 24-hour light/dark cycle have eyes with functioning retinas including operative non-visual light-sensitive cells, ipRGCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • Chromatolysis is characterized as the dissolution of protein-producing structures in the cell body of a neuron and is a term used to characterize apoptosis of neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed Ramon y Cajal (1911) to found definitely the "neuron theory" (the brain is constituted of separate cells that communicate together) and to formulate the law of "dynamic polarization" (axonalwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. (dovepress.com)
  • axon
  • Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. (dovepress.com)
  • Bodnarenko S. R., Jeyarasasingam G., and Chalupa L. M. (1995) Development and regulation of dendritic stratification in retinal ganglion cells by glutamate-mediated afferent activity. (springer.com)
  • Retinal nerve terminals display a significantly higher content of glutamate immunoreactivity than the postsynaptic dendrites and non-retinal terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is co-stored and co-transmitted with glutamate in retinal terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this study, Prof. Kwok-Fai So, an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Prof. Daxiang Lu from Jinan University, China show that oligomeric proanthocyanidin, enriched in grape seeds, has a protective effect on retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced injury, as confirmed by using both RGC-5 cell lines and retinal explant culture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • citation needed] Again, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in nutritional optic neuropathies is common to all mitochondrial optic neuropathies: it affects biochemical pathways involved in cell energetic production, correction of oxidative stress and quenching of free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • entrainment
  • The physiological properties of these ganglion cells match known properties of the daily light entrainment ( synchronization ) mechanism regulating circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • glaucoma
  • Using their new, noninvasive imaging technique, researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center are able to make out individual cells at the back of the eye that are implicated in vision loss in diseases like glaucoma. (photonics.com)
  • The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • dendrites
  • Dendrodendritic homologous gap junctions have been found as a way of communication between dendrites in the retinal α-type Ganglion cells to produce a faster method of communication to modulate the color contrast system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pre-synaptic dendrites were revealed to form new dendrodenritic excitatory synapses in the cells that had survived. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • These chemical synapses receive a depolarizing signal from an incoming action potential which results in an influx of calcium ions that permit release of Neurotransmitters to propagate the signal the post synaptic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • The performance of the cells was evaluated by investigating variability of cell responses to repeated stimulus presentations and by comparing measured to model responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although our final goal is a full spatiotemporal and chromatic analysis of ganglion cell responses to natural stimuli, we begin with a simpler stimulus, a spatially homogenous field modulated only in time and spectral properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimuli were presented while responses were recorded from magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or short wavelength (S) cone-driven ganglion cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • mechanism
  • This result restricts the types of convergence that can be postulated in modeling the mechanism of retinal directional selectivity. (sciencemag.org)
  • intrinsic
  • Using a hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS v19) with 8 intrinsic properties (Resting potential, Input Resistance, Time Constant, Maximum Frequency, Spike width, Steady-State Frequency, Frequency Adaptation, Anomalous Rectification) ,approximately five different cell groups including many different morphological types were indicated. (arvojournals.org)
  • tissue
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • In situ hybridization was performed on radial cryosections (7-10 μm) prepared from fresh retinal tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • lateral
  • Lateral inhibition from the granule cell spines helps to contribute to contrasts between odors and in odor memory. (wikipedia.org)