• viral
  • Another strategy which is different from conventional vaccine is to induce the T cell arm of the immune response using viral vectors, adenoviral vectors that contain large parts of the hepatitis C virus genome itself, to induce a T cell immune response against hepatitis C.[citation needed] Most of the work to develop a T cell vaccine has been done against a particular genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural proteins comprise the building blocks for the virion and the nonstructural proteins replicate the viral RNA [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus processes the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. (jove.com)
  • Regarding NS3 protease, two strategies have been followed: competitive inhibitors blocking the active site and allosteric inhibitors blocking the binding of the accessory viral protein NS4A. (jove.com)
  • We found ligands binding to the Zn(+2)-free NS3 protease, trap the inactive protein, and block the viral life cycle. (jove.com)
  • All integrated viral genomes recovered from MCC tissue or MCC cell lines harbor signature mutations in the early gene transcript encoding for the large T-Antigen (LT-Ag). (jove.com)
  • The innate response of hepatocytes, including interferon I responses, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, contributes to the second phase of slowed viral replication with a mean doubling time of 7.5 days [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • HCV NS3/4A protein is an attractive therapeutic target responsible for harboring serine protease and RNA helicase activities during the viral replication. (jove.com)
  • The methods utilize one or more administrations of HCV protein compositions, followed by one or more administrations of a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding a least one HCV epitope that is present in the first composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • andsubsequently administering at least once a second composition comprising a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding said at least one epitope of said first composition, whereby the nucleic acid of said second composition is expressed in one or more cells of the subject and at least part of the protein of said first composition is produced. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • protease
  • These include targeting the recognition molecules for the avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Small molecules binding at the interface between the protease and helicase domains can stabilize the closed conformation of the protein and thus block the catalytic function of HCV NS3/4A protein via an allosteric regulation mechanism. (jove.com)
  • interferon
  • The responses included strong HCV antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction, robust CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation, and induction of polyfunctional T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we show that CD81 cross-linking via immobilized E2 or mAbs specific for CD81 inhibits not only non major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but also interferon (IFN)-γ production by NK cells after exposure to interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15, or CD16 cross-linking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • NSs induces a shut-off of host transcription including interferon (IFN)-beta mRNA 7,8 and promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) at the post-translational level. (jove.com)
  • Determining the genotype is important from a clinical point of view, as such a feature contributes in determining the potential response to the therapy based on the combination of alpha interferon with ribavirin, which is currently the most used treatment. (justia.com)
  • gene
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • genome
  • These trVLPs can continuously infect cells expressing the Ebola virus proteins responsible for genome replication and transcription, allowing us to safely model multiple infectious cycles under biosafety level 2 conditions. (jove.com)
  • capsid
  • The two 5-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. (jove.com)
  • bind
  • In line, HBsAg preferentially bound to TLR9-triggered pDC demonstrating that once pDC are able to bind HBV/HBsAg, the virus exerts its immune regulatory effect. (jove.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, HCV binding to natural killer (NK) cells could result in the cross-linking of CD81. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread. (jove.com)
  • Thus, NSs is an excellent target to further attenuate MP-12, and to enhance host innate immune responses by abolishing the IFN-beta suppression function. (jove.com)
  • Thus, NSs mutants inducing type-I IFN are further attenuated, but at the same time are more efficient at stimulating host immune responses than wild-type MP-12, which makes them ideal candidates for vaccination approaches. (jove.com)
  • complexes
  • In particular, about 60% of HCV-infected patients present cold-precipitable (cryoprecipitable) and noncryoprecipitable immune complexes that could be associated with the clinical onset of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This immune complex-mediated vasculitis is characterized by a primary B-cell clonal proliferation accompanied by the deposition of immune complexes composed of complement factors, mono/oligoclonal IgMs with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound to oligo/polyclonal IgGs that, in the case of HCV infection, are mostly directed against HCV proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • complex
  • They include: apo state of HCV NS3/4A protein, HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with an allosteric inhibitor and the truncated form of the above two systems. (jove.com)
  • The molecular dynamics simulation results indicate HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 4VA adopts a closed conformation (inactive state), while the truncated apo protein adopts an open conformation (active state). (jove.com)
  • function
  • Finally, a dynamic model about the allosteric regulation and conformational changes of HCV NS3/4A protein was proposed and could provide fundamental insights into the allosteric mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein function regulation and design of new potent inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. (jove.com)
  • allosteric
  • Here, we aimed to provide some insight into the inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein by using computational methods. (jove.com)
  • virus
  • citation needed] Scientists can study the immune system's response to the virus in horses and study if vaccine candidates have any effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? (mdpi.com)
  • human
  • Therefore, HBV and HBV-derived proteins were examined for their effect on human pDC in vitro. (jove.com)
  • tight
  • The signaling of these TLRs is kept under tight control by the expression of endogenous inhibiting proteins such as RP105, a recently identified homolog of TLR4. (blogspot.com)
  • role
  • Further residue interaction network analysis suggests the communication of the domain-domain interface play an important role in the transition from closed to open conformation of HCV NS3/4A protein. (jove.com)