• hypoxia
  • Dr Smith runs the University of Cambridge Naked Mole-Rat Initiative that brings researchers together understand the highly unusual biology of this rodent: living healthily for 30 years, highly resistant to cancer, insensitive to certain painful stimuli and demonstrating extreme hypoxia resistance. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat which demonstrated that they (NMRs) appear to generate and use fructose as a coping stratagem for dealing with hypoxia or even anoxia. (blogspot.com)
  • A fish's hypoxia tolerance can also be represented as the amount of time it can spend at a particular hypoxic PO2 before it loses dorsal-ventral equilibrium (called time-to-LOE), or the PO2 at which it loses equilibrium when PO2 is decreased from normoxia to anoxia at some set rate (called PO2-of-LOE). (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin resistance
  • But if we consider that at high levels of insulin the function of that insulin is to limit its own action, I think it would be much better viewed as metformin blunts insulin induced insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Insulin induced insulin resistance in the insulin treated group appears to be absent at 30 minutes (ie 120 minutes on the graph), to have started at 60 minutes (150 minutes on the graph) and to have gotten p to below 0.05 at 90 minutes (180 minutes on the graph). (blogspot.com)
  • Insulin is an effective inducer of insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Working on the basis that insulin induced insulin resistance is triggered by "excessive" (ie physiologically appropriate to limit nutrient ingress under high calorie availability conditions) levels of superoxide generation then blockade of mtG3Pdh will reduce this "excessive" level of superoxide so defer the onset of insulin induced insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • You just have to wonder whether metformin reduces hunger by blunting insulin signalling at adipocytes, so supplying more calories for the brain to sense or by facilitating the action of insulin within the brain so higher levels of insulin derived from eating absolute crap no longer induce CNS insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Note that the effect was only present under high insulin levels post prandially when the normal physiological response is to shut down excess calorie ingress by inducing insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • In the Protons series I have worked on the (incorrect) basis that fructose should drive the glycerophosphate shuttle hard enough to generate RET (reverse electron transport) and so signal insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • The degree of insulin resistance should neatly reduce insulin mediated glucose supply by an appropriate amount to offset the fructose and so maintain a stable flux of ATP generation from the combined fructose and glucose. (blogspot.com)
  • Even before the aldolase step in fructolysis, the body is starting to prepare the process of insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • I think it is a reasonable assumption that the hydrogen peroxide generated by NOX4 will be what signals the insulin resistance induced by fructose, rather than RET via mtG3Pdh. (blogspot.com)
  • My own concept is that there is the necessity to developing insulin resistance when fructose is available so as to limit glucose ingress to offset the ATP from that fructose ingress. (blogspot.com)
  • Macrovesicular steatosis is the more common form of fatty degeneration and may be caused by oversupply of lipids due to obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), insulin resistance, or alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen
  • To determine whether increased glycogen stores might protect the heart against anoxia, experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that both marked and minor elevations in cardiac glycogen are associated with greater glycolytic reserve and improved mechanical resistance to anoxia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that nematode survival of a hyposmotic environment during anoxia (hyposmotic anoxia) depends on the nematode's ability to engage in glycogen metabolism. (genetics.org)
  • We also present results of a genome-wide screen for genes affecting glycogen content and localization in the nematode, showing that nematode survival of hyposmotic anoxia depends on a large number of these genes. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, we show that an inability to engage in glycogen synthesis results in suppression of the enhanced survival phenotype observed in daf-2 insulin-like pathway mutants, suggesting that alterations in glycogen metabolism may serve as a basis for these mutants' resistance to hyposmotic anoxia. (genetics.org)
  • minutes
  • Hearts from the reserpine-treated rats had higher left ventricular pressures, maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise, and lactate output after 2 minutes of anoxia than the hearts from control rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • control
  • Thus, while encysted embryos show complete inhibition of proteolysis over at least 4 years under anoxia, control of this activity, together with resistance to anoxia, is lost in newly hatched nauplius larvae after only a few days in anaerobic sea water. (biologists.org)