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  • Genetic
  • 2008. Genetic linkage mapping of the soybean aphid resistance gene in PI 243540. (osu.edu)
  • This study provides a certain theoretical basis of molecular biology for genetic improvement of cucumber aphid resistance and aphid resistant variety breeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Determination of the genetic basis of crop resistance to insect pests has been widely studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ashry NA, Mansour MTM, Aly AA, Zayed SM (2002) Genetic studies on powdery mildew resistance of flax, yield and some yield components. (springer.com)
  • Gunduz I, Buss GR, Ma G, Chen P, Tolin SA (2001) Genetic analysis of resistance to soybean mosaic virus in 0X670 and harosoy soybean. (springer.com)
  • It's in their genetic background that they overcome (plant) resistance," Glen Hartman, a professor of crop sciences and plant pathologist at U of I in Champaign, said today. (sj-r.com)
  • This method of genetic modification works by interfering with messenger RNA to stop the synthesis of proteins, effectively silencing a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This addition of genes into an organism's genetic material creates a new variety with desired traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an agricultural setting, the pathogen can be controlled using chemical methods, genetic resistance, and careful farming methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, diversity of a harvested plant can be the result of genetic differences: a crop may have genes conferring early maturity or disease resistance Such traits collectively determine a crop's overall characteristics and their future potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • New strains of Bt are developed and introduced over time as insects develop resistance to Bt, or the desire occurs to force mutations to modify organism characteristics or to use homologous recombinant genetic engineering to improve crystal size and increase pesticidal activity or broaden the host range of Bt and obtain more effective formulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the important outcomes of recasting the individual as a holobiont subject to evolutionary forces is that genetic variation in the hologenome can be brought about by changes in the host genome and also by changes in the microbiome, including new acquisitions of microbes, horizontal gene transfers, and changes in microbial abundance within hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects
  • Wooly aphids (Eriosomatinae) and other sucking insects are often vectors of transmission for powdery mildew, and other infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adelgids are sometimes described as aphids, but are more properly classified as aphid-like insects, because they have no cauda or cornicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • The purpose of the study was to understand the nature and mechanism of inheritance of F . wilt resistance, yield and secondary traits in pigeonpea. (springer.com)
  • Some F 1 plants were selfed for segregation analysis for inheritance pattern of resistance, while others were evaluated for resistance, yield and secondary traits. (springer.com)
  • However, the relatively low densities of soybean aphids during this stage have been found to have minimal impacts on soybean yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yield losses as high as 50 to 70% have been documented as a result of prolonged exposure to high densities of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • We evaluated the lines based on aphid control and yield protection. (iastate.edu)
  • However, various native and invasive insect pests whose distributions are rapidly expanding and adapting to management practices threaten soybean yield and quality. (nimss.org)
  • In the 20th century, a surge in technology resulted in an increase in agricultural biotechnology through the selection of traits like increased yield, pest resistance, drought resistance, and herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important sources of edible oil and proteins and pathogenic infections are responsible for annual yield losses of about $4 billion dollars in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • densities
  • There were no interactive or main effects of the presence of Rag genes on the densities of any of the arthropods. (mdpi.com)
  • The second stage, or pre-peak stage, can begin as early as late June and is characterized by dramatic increases in densities of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • herbicide
  • Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, or environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, or resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corn
  • A maize inbred exhibits resistance against western corn rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. (psu.edu)
  • This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Genomic evidence suggests that several amino acid biosynthetic pathways are shared between aphid and Buchnera , providing the aphid the ability to regulate the endosymbiont's metabolism ( 16 ). (jgenomics.com)
  • yields
  • Without research-based management recommendations, millions of dollars can be lost as a result of decreased yields or seed quality, improper deployment of control recommendations, and/or increased insecticide resistance. (nimss.org)
  • crops
  • Aphid is one of the most serious cucumber pests and frequently cause severe damage to commercially produced crops. (frontiersin.org)
  • These transgene crops possess desirable characteristics in terms of flavor, color of flowers, growth rate, size of harvested products and resistance to diseases and pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crops are increasingly grown in monoculture, meaning that if, as in the historic Irish Potato Famine, a single disease overcomes a variety's resistance, it may destroy an entire harvest, or as in the case of the 'Gros Michel' banana, may cause the commercial extinction of an entire variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • The effect of aphid infestation on the expression of these candidate genes screened by SLAF-seq was investigated in EP6392 plants by qRT-PCR. (frontiersin.org)
  • The gene Csa5M642150.1, encoding probable LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase At5g15730-like, was most likely a key candidate gene in cucumber plants in response to infestation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They can feed on other plants, but they only readily reproduce during the summer months on soybean. (innovations-report.com)
  • Reduction in photosynthetic capacity of soybean may occur before plants begin to display symptoms of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this stage, small colonies of soybean aphids appear patchy, occurring on single plants scattered throughout a field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these early colonies, soybean aphids are typically grouped on tender, young leaves of soybean plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has piercing-sucking mouthparts and typically feeds on new tissue on the undersides of leaves near the top of recently colonized soybean plants. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Symptoms of soybeans infested by soybean aphid may include yellowed, distorted leaves and stunted plants. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Soybean plants appear to be most vulnerable to aphid injury during the early reproductive stages. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Methods and materials for conferring pest resistance to plants are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Plants are transformed with a silencing construct homologous to a gene of a plant pest that is essential for the survival, development, or pathogenicity of the pest. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, golden rice contains three genes that allow plants to produce compounds that are converted to vitamin A in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • producers
  • Illinois is the nation's second-largest soybean producers after Iowa. (sj-r.com)
  • To address these concerns, coordinated research and Extension delivery are necessary to rapidly understand native and invasive pest biology, develop best management practices, and deliver recommendations to soybean producers. (nimss.org)
  • Along with the changing pest complexes, soybean producers are also faced with managing pests with new tools and technologies. (nimss.org)
  • Interactions
  • The significance of GCA and SCA effects suggested that variations were due to additive gene action in both the testers and parental lines arising from their interactions, and the dominance effects due to interactions of the parental lines. (springer.com)
  • In the long-term, the establishment of invasive insect pests will continue to impact soybean ecosystems, including interactions with native pests and the biological control offered by various natural enemies. (nimss.org)
  • This publication has formed the basis of the recent resurgence and discussion in holobionts and hologenomes, namely by equating interactions between hosts and microbes as part of a conceptual continuum to interactions between genes in the same genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperate
  • Typically wooly aphids in sub temperate climates precede and are an indicator of various infections, including Powdery mildew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids are distributed worldwide, but are most common in temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • In most strains of B. thuringiensis, the cry genes are located on a plasmid (cry is not a chromosomal gene in most strains). (wikipedia.org)
  • insecticidal
  • Upon sporulation, B. thuringiensis forms crystals of proteinaceous insecticidal δ-endotoxins (called crystal proteins or Cry proteins), which are encoded by cry genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery
  • This paper provides a review of historical and current efforts in the development, validation, and application of SNP markers in QTL/gene discovery and plant breeding by discussing key experimental strategies and cases exemplifying their impact. (hindawi.com)