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  • strains
  • Some S. aureus strains harbor plasmids that carry genes that affect resistance to biocides. (frontiersin.org)
  • The identification of a novel mechanism of qacA conjugative transfer among Staphylococcal strains suggests a possible future increase in the prevalence of antiseptic tolerant bacterial strains, and an increase in the rate of infections in settings where these agents are commonly used. (frontiersin.org)
  • mcr-1 is capable of horizontal transfer between different strains of a bacterial species and after discovery in November 2015 in E. coli (strain SHP45) from a pig in China it has been found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae. (wikipedia.org)
  • mcr-1 is the first polymyxin resistance gene known to be capable of horizontal transfer between different strains of a bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • TALE-likes have additionally been found in many strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum bacterial species complex, in Burkholderia rhizoxinica strain HKI 454, and in two unknown marine bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on similar domain structure and repeat sequences it was presumed that this gene and homologs in other Ralstonia strains would encode proteins with the same molecular properties as TALEs, including sequence-specific DNA binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is routinely used to introduce human disease genes or other genes of interest into strains of laboratory mice to study the function or pathology involved with that particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xa21
  • We conclude that the pyramid line containing genes Xa4 , xa5 , and Xa21 would be the most promising and valuable genotype for improving Korean japonica cultivars for BB resistance. (apsnet.org)
  • rice
  • Linkage analysis of nine isozyme genes on the conventional linkage map in rice. (springer.com)
  • Rice Karyotype, Marker Genes, and Linkage Groups. (springer.com)
  • Gene Prioritization of Resistant Rice Gene against Xanthomas oryzae pv. (hindawi.com)
  • The text mining technique of term frequency inverse document frequency is used to measure the importance of distinguished terms which reflect biomedical activity in rice before candidate genes are screened and vital terms are produced. (hindawi.com)
  • 2005. Identification and characterization of regions of the rice genome associated with broad-spectrum, quantitative disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motivated by the upcoming food crisis problem of malnutrition in developing countries and the potential of gene technology to contribute to food security, Potrykus and his research group dedicated their work to genetic engineering projects aimed at improving yield stability and food quality of crops such as rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, and cassava. (wikipedia.org)
  • To combat this, scientists used biolistics to insert the daffodil phytoene synthase gene into Asia indigenous rice cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Developing resistant cultivars requires an understanding of the dynamics of the pathogen populations as well as the genetics of host resistance. (apsnet.org)
  • There are three races of the pathogen (races 1, 2 and 3), and the deployment of three single, dominant resistance genes corresponding to each of these has been the primary means of controlling the disease. (springer.com)
  • Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The P. s ojae s usceptible ( pss ) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, P. sojae and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, F. virguliforme that cause diseases in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three NHR genes, PEN1, PEN2 and PEN3 , required for penetration resistance of Arabidopsis against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ongoing research includes analyzing the genetic architecture of quantitative disease resistance and dissecting quantitative trait loci to identify mechanisms and genes that impair pathogen development, with a particular interest in multiple disease resistance and mycotoxin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2008 she has been at the successor institution, the Julius Kuehn Institute, State Research Institute for Crop Plants, at the Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics as head of the Microbial Oncology and Bacterial Phytopathogens group. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant genes
  • The spread of antibiotic resistance from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to soil, crops, and waterways is of international concern and little research has been done with regards to the genetic mobility and persistence of resistant genes. (iastate.edu)
  • Working with a local swine farmer, the researcher will build on previous work, studying E.coli levels in soil fertilized with swine manure, quantifying the amounts of seven antibiotic-resistant genes in manure and soil samples, pre- and post-manure application. (iastate.edu)
  • It is important to find a more effective way to locate vital resistant genes. (hindawi.com)
  • For better use of the textual information about the gene, both structural and domain information for Xoo -resistant genes should be considered. (hindawi.com)
  • Oryza
  • also applied this classifier onto the whole KOME database (Knowledge-based Oryza Molecular Biological Encyclopedia, ftp://cdna01.dna.affrc.go.jp/pub/data//20081001/20081001/INE_FULL_SEQUENCE_DB_20081001.zip ) and located the top 10 candidate genes, most of which own abundant annotation information in conserved domain information. (hindawi.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Baba T et al (2006) Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection. (springer.com)
  • Datsenko KA, Wanner BL (2000) One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products. (springer.com)
  • citation needed] The first transgenic organism was created in 1974 when Annie Chang and Stanley Cohen expressed Staphylococcus aureus genes in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Some research suggests the overuse of antibiotics in the raising of livestock is contributing to outbreaks of bacterial infections such as C. difficile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kanamycin A, often referred to as simple kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genome
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Brg11 and other RipTALs likely promote disease through the transcriptional activation of host genes. (lmu.de)
  • Progeny of recombinants were evaluated for bacterial spot severity in the field for three seasons, and disease severities were compared between I - 3 introgression haplotypes for each recombinant. (springer.com)
  • Alexander LJ (1959) Progress report of national screening committee for disease resistance in tomato for 1954-1957. (springer.com)
  • We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epizootiology of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial kidney disease of salmonids fishes caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum. (springer.com)
  • Relation of water temperature to bacterial kidney disease in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). (springer.com)
  • 7 ] presented a novel disease-resistant gene predictor by using chaos games representation (CGR), and the predictor achieved a high accuracy of 98.13% by using a small database with 107 samples. (hindawi.com)
  • In her research there, she used molecular techniques to understand resistance of tomatoes to bacterial wilt as this disease significantly reduces crop production in tropical regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • The use of nitrogenous fertilizer has shown an increase in incidence but mainly because there is more plant growth and conditions stay more humid, but does not have an effect on lesion size During drier weather bacterial ooze will secrete from leaf lesions in hopes of finding a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkholderia
  • Greenberg DE et al (2010) Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers targeted to an essential gene inhibit Burkholderia cepacia complex. (springer.com)
  • promoters
  • Once inside the host cell they translocate to the nucleus, bind specific DNA sequences within host promoters and turn on downstream genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery
  • Price said he hopes the rapid discovery of the gene across such a large expanse will serve as a wake-up call. (statnews.com)
  • While on one hand the results of resistant gene discovery with map-based cloning approach are accurate, these laboratory experiments take years of endeavor and a huge amount of input in terms of human and material resources. (hindawi.com)
  • For a quicker discovery of R genes, the sequence-based approach in bioinformatics is an alternative strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, the text mining strategy represents another effective way to improve the efficiency of gene discovery. (hindawi.com)
  • sensitivity
  • Results indicated that increased sensitivity to bacterial spot is not associated with the I - 3 gene, but rather with an upstream region of the introgression. (springer.com)
  • sequence
  • The sequence of genes at the eighth and eleventh linkage groups. (springer.com)
  • a hybrid strategy is proposed to enhance gene prioritization by combining text mining technologies with a sequence-based approach. (hindawi.com)
  • In its most precise usage, the term transgene describes a segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from one organism and is introduced into a different organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • I check for the gene knockout in 'centrimide+kan+amp' plate with PAO1 using the gene inserted suicide vector pFS100 and get no growth (showing the gene is essential) whereas the control plate without antibiotic markers show growth. (protocol-online.org)
  • single-gene
  • This problem interested Potrykus for numerous reasons, including the scientific challenge of transferring not just a single gene, but a group of genes that represented a key part of a biochemical pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Many DNA-binding domains must recognize specific DNA sequences, such as DBDs of transcription factors that activate specific genes, or those of enzymes that modify DNA at specific sites, like restriction enzymes and telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • they can either replace the host gene with one that codes for a different protein, or introduce an additional gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. (usgs.gov)
  • This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain. (usgs.gov)
  • transcriptional
  • The mechanism whereby pRB activates hTR remains unknown though pRB is not known to interact directly in a specific fashion with DNA, relying instead on recruitment to genes through interaction with other transcriptional regulators including Sp1 and mdm2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary transcriptional repressor genes, called kor (short for "kil-override") genes, which inactivate the kil genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino acids in length and possesses four putative transmembrane α-helical spanners (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • However bacteria that are not naturally competent can be treated in such a way to make them competent, usually by treatment with calcium chloride, which make them more permiable Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material (plasmid) between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • It has been shown to activate genes that ramp up the killing power of T-cells, and their effectiveness at protecting us from viruses, bacteria and fungi. (seniorfitness.com)
  • The most common bacteria that make this enzyme are gram-negative such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but the gene for NDM-1 can spread from one strain of bacteria to another by horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resistance conferred by this gene (blaNDM-1), therefore, aids the expansion of bacteria that carry it throughout a human host, since they will face less opposition/competition from populations of antibiotic-sensitive bacteria, which will be diminished by the original antibacterial treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2010, a study in a hospital in Mumbai found that most carbapenem-resistant bacteria isolated from patients carried the blaNDM-1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • One method of bacterial culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, such as Luria Broth, in an upright flask. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial genetics is the subfield of genetics devoted to the study of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial genetics are subtly different from eukaryotic genetics, however bacteria still serve as a good model for animal genetic studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences in morphology and other properties were attributed by Nageli in 1877, to bacterial pleomorphism, which postulated the existence of a single, a few species of bacteria, which possessed a protein capacity for a variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential replication system in RK2 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, and a gene, trfA, whose gene product, the TrfA protein, binds to and activates oriV. (wikipedia.org)
  • PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) identified in R. sphaeroides, is a trans-acting sRNA which counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, mediated by protein regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the MYD88 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Motivated by the upcoming food crisis problem of malnutrition in developing countries and the potential of gene technology to contribute to food security, Potrykus and his research group dedicated their work to genetic engineering projects aimed at improving yield stability and food quality of crops such as rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, and cassava. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, scientists are conducting genetic and molecular biological studies on the rice disease resistance to bacterial panicle blight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic mapping to identify the rice genes associated with the disease resistance is under way. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • Jan. 7, 2016- Inducing "tolerance" to bacterial toxins in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels may offer a new approach for preventing the negative consequences of sepsis. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Our subsequent experimental work focused upon practical applications of BOEC: their use for gene therapy, tissue engineering, assessment of mutant gene effect, and discovery of heterogeneity in endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • resistant
  • Vencill suspects that the phenomenon is the result of changes in plant physiology caused by the addition of genes making the beans resistant to glyphosate, the herbicide marketed as Roundup by Monsanto. (biosafety-info.net)
  • Intriguingly, he found that plants resistant to a different herbicide, gluphosinate, were not affected by the heat, so he concludes the problem must be peculiar to glyphosate resistance. (biosafety-info.net)
  • in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection was identified as a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain bearing the novel gene blaNDM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, scientists are making efforts to develop new rice varieties and lines resistant to bacterial panicle blight through conventional breeding and line development processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • As of June 2010[update], there were three reported cases of Enterobacteriaceae isolates bearing this newly described resistance mechanism in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that "All three U.S. isolates were from patients having received recent medical care in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research goal on bacterial panicle blight is to develop effective disease control methods based on better understanding of the bacterial virulence mechanism and the rice defense system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, scientists are studying molecular genetics and genomics of the major pathogen, B. glumae, to understand the mechanism underlying its bacterial pathogenesis in rice. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • carbapenem
  • However, the blaNDM-1 gene produces NDM-1, which is a carbapenemase beta-lactamase - an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates these carbapenem antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • For instance, Dr. Stephen Meyer of Discovery Institute says that "bacterial cells are propelled by rotary engines called flagellar motors that rotate at 100,000 rpm," which is powerful evidence for design by an intelligent cause. (blogspot.fi)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDB: 1WAZ​, 2H3O​, 2LJ2​, 2M67​, 2MOZ​ The MerTP permeases catalyze uptake into bacterial cells of Hg2+ in preparation for its reduction by the MerA mercuric reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Sequencing of the complete gene was suggested being Delphinidin chloride a isolated from several clinical samples had been gathered between 2006 and 2012 from the next clinics: Rafic Harrii Beyrouth governmental medical center, Tripoli governmental medical center (TGH), Nini medical center, Rahal hospital, Monla hospital and Ain Wazein Hospital (AWH). (scienceofgreathealth.com)
  • The previously identified core promoter region in the hTR gene has several features utilised by the basal RNA PolII transcription machinery, including one CCAAT-box and four Sp1 sites termed Sp1.1-Sp1.4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This particularly broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance was heightened by the strain's expressing several different resistance genes in addition to blaNDM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the 1O2 induced sRNAs SorY (1O2 resistance RNA Y) was shown to be induced under several stress conditions and conferred resistance against 1O2 by affecting a metabolite transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Succulent Genes for Water Use Efficiency To understand how many plant lineages have independently transitioned from C3 to CAM photosynthesis, researchers sequenced and analyzed the genome of Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi (lavender scallops). (doe.gov)
  • expression
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • Twenty-one tests were carried out on homozygous mutant animals, revealing one abnormality: male mutants had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • One of the major distinctions between bacterial and eukaryotic genetics stems from the bacteria's lack of membrane-bound organelles (this is true of all prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • beneficial
  • Gene Atlases of Grass-Microbe Interactions This proposal seeks to build comprehensive gene atlas maps for diverse bioenergy grass-microbe interactions, including pathogenic and beneficial interactions in two grass models, Brachypodium and Setaria. (doe.gov)
  • shown
  • 29, 2015- Chemists Brian Bachmann and John McLean have shown that creating bacterial "fight clubs" is an effective way to discover natural biomolecules with the properties required for new drugs. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The bacterial G6PD found in Leuconostoc mesenteroides was shown to be reactive toward 4-Hydroxynonenal, in addition to G6P. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These findings are a proof of concept of novel methods to functionally annotate genomes in order to more quickly identify genes of interest. (doe.gov)
  • include
  • Symptoms of bacterial panicle blight include seedling blighting and sheath rot in addition to panicle blighting, which accounts for most of the damage from this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • An early focus of her research was the study of redox-sensitive transcription factors and the bacterial and yeast responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • direct
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • To make sure that the new DNA has been effectively incorporated into the cell's DNA, the transferred DNA will often not only contain genes encoding for the desired trait, but also for an antibiotic. (macalester.edu)
  • human
  • The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Among the many methods used to genetically modify an organism is gene insertion, which is injecting an organism with a gene it does not originally possess. (macalester.edu)
  • high
  • 20, 2015- The enzyme alkaline phosphatase may provide a new therapeutic option for women at high risk of pregnancy complications due to bacterial toxin exposure. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Prolonged high temperature during the growing season is an important environmental condition that promotes the development of bacterial panicle blight. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Research into gene therapy may eventually provide treatment to stop the progression of some types of muscular dystrophy. (blogspot.com)
  • make
  • Suspected global warming could make bacterial panicle blight a greater threat to rice production in the future. (wikipedia.org)