• humans
  • Although conventional mouse models have allowed for an increased understanding of mammalian immune systems, this knowledge cannot necessarily be directly applied to humans due to biological differences between the two species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are currently the laboratory animal species most closely related to humans for which the knockout technique can easily be applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the latter half of the 20th century, the field saw renewed prominence with research on inheritance of behaviour and mental illness in humans (typically using twin and family studies), as well as research on genetically informative model organisms through selective breeding and crosses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PER3-P415A/H417R polymorphism has been linked to familial advanced sleep phase syndrome in humans, as well as to seasonal affective disorder, though when knocked in to mice, the polymorphism causes a delayed sleep phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • Furthermore, the deficiency in GIP receptors has also been associated in mice with a dramatic decrease in bone quality and a subsequent increase in fracture risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, it has been found that AIRE is expressed in a population of stromal cells located in secondary lymphoid tissues, however these cells appear to express a distinct set of TRAs compared to mTECs Research in knockout mice has demonstrated that AIRE functions through initiating the transcription of a diverse set of self-antigens, such as insulin, in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • These include evidence that nearly all researched behaviors are under a significant degree of genetic influence, and that influence tends to increase as individuals develop into adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Artificial DNA sequences typically are introduced into mouse ES cells using a retrovirus or other viral vector, and the modified ES cells are then grown in cell cultures . (britannica.com)
  • models
  • Knockout animal models also have provided a platform on which to develop and test novel drug therapies. (britannica.com)
  • Other mouse models are named according to their physical characteristics or behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease symptoms and potential drugs or treatments can be tested against these mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The mouse pups born in this manner contain both modified and nonmodified tissue and thus are not complete knockout mice. (britannica.com)
  • The length polymorphism has also been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and Per3 knockout mice were shown to have increased adipose tissue and decreased muscle tissue compared to wild type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nude mouse is valuable to research because it can receive many different types of tissue and tumor grafts, as it mounts no rejection response. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The amino acid sequence of the mouse PERIOD3 protein (mPER3) is between 37-56% similar to the other two PER proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • However, this is not the case, as newer research on FAAH knockout mice has found that brain cells internalize anandamide through a selective transport mechanism which is independent of FAAH activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In controlled, germ free environments and with antibiotic treatments found in many laboratories that routinely use nude mice, they can live almost as long as normal mice (18 months to two years). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Studies have shown that mice muscle development in the intercostal and paraspinal regions can be delayed by inactivating Myf-5. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • PrP is highly conserved through mammals, lending credence to application of conclusions from test animals such as mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • Even basic issues like choosing the correct "wild-type" control mouse to use for comparison are sometimes overlooked. (wikipedia.org)
  • slightly
  • Per3 knockout mice experience a slightly shortened period of locomotor activity (by 0.5 hr) and are less sensitive to light, in that they entrain more slowly to changes in the light-dark cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • randomly
  • The first involves pronuclear injection into a single cell of the mouse embryo, where it will randomly integrate into the mouse genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • A mouse has been genetically engineered to have increased muscle growth and strength by overexpressing the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in differentiated muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, a large body of research has developed on candidates and their interaction with the PrPC. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the mice did not pass the transgene to their offspring, and the impact and applicability of this experiment were, therefore, limited. (wikipedia.org)