• genome
  • While genetic sequencing techniques can determine the genotype of a genome, they cannot determine the function or phenotypic expression of gene sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the treatment of genetic diseases, the insertion of a transposon into deleterious gene locus of organism's genome would misalign the locus sequence, truncating any harmful proteins formed and rendering them non-functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ac/Ds prefer to transpose to nearby genes, affording a way to mutagenize those regions of the genome, and by subsequent genetic crosses, remove the Ac that causes new mutants and instability of a Ds mutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrated physical, genetic and genome map of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L. (springer.com)
  • Integrated physical, genetic and genome map should provide a foundation for cloning and isolation of QTLs/genes for molecular dissection of traits as well as markers for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement. (springer.com)
  • Recent advances in chickpea genomics have made it possible to not only develop large-scale molecular markers, genetic maps, transcriptomic resources for conducting large-scale and high-throughput marker genotyping but also sequence the genome of this important crop (Varshney et al. (springer.com)
  • For horizontal gene transfer to be successful, the foreign genetic material must become integrated into the cell s genome, or become stably maintained in the recipient cell in some other form. (ratical.org)
  • In most cases, foreign genetic material that enters a cell by accident, especially if it is from another species, will be broken down before it can incorporate into the genome. (ratical.org)
  • Under certain ecological conditions which are still poorly understood, foreign genetic material escapes being broken down and become incorporated in the genome. (ratical.org)
  • phenotype
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • in these cases, a simulation may be used to determine the fitness function value of a phenotype (e.g. computational fluid dynamics is used to determine the air resistance of a vehicle whose shape is encoded as the phenotype), or even interactive genetic algorithms are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • P elements are transposable elements that were discovered in Drosophila as the causative agents of genetic traits called hybrid dysgenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-allelic additive-dominance genetic effects were recorded for most traits in both conditions except transpiration rate, being controlled by additive epistatic effects in NS regime. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods for producing a maize plant containing in its genetic material one or more traits introgressed into PH25M1 through backcross conversion and/or transformation, and to the maize seed, plant and plant part produced thereby. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. (wikipedia.org)
  • females
  • Evidence for this comes from crosses of laboratory females (which lack P transposase inhibitor) with wild type males (which have P elements). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid dysgenesis refers to the high rate of mutation in germ line cells of Drosophila strains resulting from a cross of males with autonomous P elements (P Strain/P cytotype) and females that lack P elements (M Strain/M cytotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • The males and females are separate genetic lines or breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Currently transposons can be used in genetic research and recombinant genetic engineering for insertional mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • maize
  • Dissection of genetic variance into additive (D), dominance (H), environment (E) and interaction (F) components revealed significance of only DE variances in HS condition than DE, DFE and DHE variances in NS regime which hinted at the potential role of environments in breeding maize for high temperature tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • algorithm
  • The genetic algorithm is presented as abstraction of biological evolution and theoretical framework for adaptation for moving from one population of "chromosomes" (e.g., strings of ones and zeros, or "bits") to a new population by using a kind of "natural selection" together with the genetics-inspired operators of crossover, mutation, and inversion. (hindawi.com)
  • In a genetic algorithm, a population of candidate solutions (called individuals, creatures, or phenotypes) to an optimization problem is evolved toward better solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical genetic algorithm requires: a genetic representation of the solution domain, a fitness function to evaluate the solution domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Populations
  • Studies of large sets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data have proven to be a powerful tool in the analysis of the genetic structure of human populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Hunter-gatherer populations (Khoisan and Pygmies) show a clear distinctiveness with very intrinsic Pygmy (and not only Khoisan) genetic features. (blogspot.com)
  • An initial analysis of Harriet's DNA was unable to identify her subspecies in a cross section of 900 animals representing 26 extant and extinct populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificially
  • The only known exception to this lack of genetic variation for queen-worker developmental propensity is restricted to artificially induced emergency queen production in honeybees ( 11 ⇓ ⇓ - 14 ), queens of which are normally determined solely by being fed a special diet of "royal jelly. (pnas.org)
  • Research into transgenics - removing genes or artificially moving genes from one individual or species to another - has fewer prospects of gaining favor among consumers. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Etter became known for his insistence on the value of using unimproved parent material, often taken from wild strains, and he frequently made 'wide' crosses between widely divergent genetic types. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • In behavioral studies, if cross-fostered offspring show a behavioral trait similar to their biological parents and dissimilar from their foster parents, a behavior can be shown to have a genetic basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Genetic researchers Zsuzsanna Izsvák and Zoltán Ivics discovered a fish transposon sequence that, despite being dormant for 15 million years, could be resurrected as a vector for introducing foreign genes into the vertebrate genomes, including those of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • began their experiment by constructing a genetic sequence consisting of the Hmox-1 transposable element and transposase from Sleeping Beauty. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical map was linked with two genetic maps with the help of 245 BAC-end sequence (BES)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. (springer.com)
  • material
  • In other words, it enhances horizontal gene transfer -- the direct transfer of genetic material to unrelated species. (ratical.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material between cells or genomes belonging to unrelated species, by processes other than usual reproduction. (ratical.org)
  • and in transformation , the genetic material is taken up directly by the cell from its environment. (ratical.org)
  • respectively
  • High-density genetic maps were used to localize novel qualitative resistance loci named Rda 1 and Rda 2 from V. cinerea B9 and 'Horizon', respectively. (springer.com)
  • locus
  • The mat1 locus is expressed and it confers cell type, while mat2P and mat3M , located in the silenced region, act only as donors for providing copies of genetic information for mat1 switching. (genetics.org)
  • Rapid characterization of novel NB-LRR-associated resistance to Phomopsis cane spot on grapevine using high-throughput sampling and low-coverage sequencing for genotyping, locus mapping and transcriptome analysis provides insights into genetic resistance to a hemibiotrophic fungus. (springer.com)
  • Co-linearity between reference genetic and physical maps allowed localization of Rda 2 locus between 1.5 and 2.4 Mbp on chromosome 7, and Rda 1 locus between 19.3 and 19.6 Mbp of chromosome 15, which spans a cluster of five NB-LRR genes. (springer.com)
  • chicks
  • Cross fostering has been used in conservation biology such as the rearing of black robin chicks by other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • Genetic algorithms are commonly used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems by relying on bio-inspired operators such as mutation, crossover and selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next step is to generate a second generation population of solutions from those selected through a combination of genetic operators: crossover (also called recombination), and mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • In selective livestock breeding cross-fostering can be used to combine desirable genetic qualities such as weight, fat distribution or appearance with environmentally influenced ones such as temperament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic improvement can be mediated by selective breeding, via hybridization, or other genetic manipulation techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although lowering the saponin content through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties is complicated by ≈10% cross-pollination, it is a major goal of quinoa breeding programs, which may include genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • varieties
  • clarification needed] Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders in England was established in the 1890s by John Garton, who was one of the first to commercialize new varieties of agricultural crops created through cross-pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The firm's first introduction was Abundance Oat, one of the first agricultural grain varieties bred from a controlled cross, introduced to commerce in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Genetic algorithms (GAs) were initially developed by Bremermann [ 5 ] in 1958 but popularized and developed by Holland in the 1960s. (hindawi.com)
  • species
  • The Zoo has had a successful cross-fostering program between wallaby species, but this is the first time it was tried with a tree kangaroo and wallaby. (wikipedia.org)
  • seeds
  • After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that if the seeds were soaked with distilled water and the outer shell of the seeds removed, this improved the germination rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Engineering
  • Some scientists have been drawing attention to this possibility recently [ 2 ] , but the warnings actually date back to the mid-1970s when genetic engineering began. (ratical.org)
  • The genes and gene-constructs created in genetic engineering have never existed in billions of years of evolution. (ratical.org)
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic make-up of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel
  • Genetic pharmacotherapy is an early drug development strategy for the identification of novel CNS targets in mouse models prior to the development of specific ligands. (frontiersin.org)
  • biological
  • Cross-fostering is a technique used in animal husbandry, animal science, genetic and nature versus nurture studies, and conservation, whereby offspring are removed from their biological parents at birth and raised by surrogates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, studies of children in foster care have shown that alcoholism is both genetic and environmental: early onset alcoholism can be linked to biological parentage, whereas adult onset alcoholism is often influenced by the alcohol abuse by foster parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • Genetic polymorphism for cheating is therefore predicted to arise in all nonclonal social systems ( 2 , 3 ) and is particularly well characterized in the social microbes ( 4 ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • plant
  • For one thing, they were far removed from the main trucking and rail routes, and for another, new plant hybrids were not protected by the patent system until 1930. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • However, such genetic cheating does not appear to occur in one of the classic examples of cooperation, the development of social insect larvae into either reproductive queens or sterile workers. (pnas.org)
  • Cross fostering may occasionally occur in natural situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • At the same time, other breeders in the U.S. were working with distinctly wild looking barn cats and collaborated with Brewer to establish a broad genetic base and to develop the foundation of today's Pixie-bob. (wikipedia.org)
  • improvement
  • With dominant effects associated with disease-free berries and minimal symptoms on canes, Rda 1 and Rda 2 are promising loci for grapevine genetic improvement. (springer.com)
  • Once
  • Once the genetic representation and the fitness function are defined, a GA proceeds to initialize a population of solutions and then to improve it through repetitive application of the mutation, crossover, inversion and selection operators. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example the second cousin once removed relationship is a second-degree cousin with one removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • First cousins once removed A person shares a first cousins once removed relationship with their parents' cousins and their cousins' children. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the example family tree, Gordon and Julie, as well as Joseph and Matt, are first cousins once removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Some of the more common methods are: Manual stripping : For shellfish, gonads are generally removed and gametes are extracted or washed free. (wikipedia.org)
  • especially
  • He felt that the west coast climate called for new kinds of apples, and he began experimenting with wide crosses, especially between apples and crabapples. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Note that two people can be removed but be around the same age due to differences in birth dates of parents children and other relevant ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • According to Fogel and Aderson [ 8 ], Bremermann was the first to implement real-coded genetic algorithms as well as providing a mathematic model of GA known as the one-max function. (hindawi.com)
  • It is not presently known what genetic similarity there may or may not be between the Pixie-bob and other breeds with suppression of the tail, such as the Manx, American Bobtail, and Japanese Bobtail. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • We discuss further the advantages, limitations, and feasibility of the wider application of genetic pharmacotherapy for neuropsychiatric drug development. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is useful to zoom in on the African portion of the plot: notice the circles and diamonds for African Americans and Maasai that are tilted toward Caucasoids, while the crosses and squares for Pygmies are further removed near the top right. (blogspot.com)
  • lack
  • This lack of genetic cheating is thought to be because queens and workers normally differ morphologically, the caste destiny of larvae is determined by environmental cues, and these cues are controlled by adult workers that are unable to bias larval development nepotistically ( 7 ⇓ ⇓ - 10 ). (pnas.org)