• modulation
  • Mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area play a key role in the modulation of these signals to influence complex processes such as arousal, attention, vigilance, novelty-induced stress and learning. (springer.com)
  • mRNA
  • A2a-deficient mouse retina showed defective regulation of photoreceptor gap junction phosphorylation, fairly regular dopamine release, and moderately downregulated expression of D4R and AC type 1 mRNA. (jneurosci.org)
  • A subpopulation of MSNs contain both D1-type and D2-type receptors, with approximately 40% of striatal MSNs expressing both DRD1 and DRD2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • Val194Gly A polymorphic tandem duplication of 120 bp[citation needed] Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and the personality trait of novelty seeking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , schizophrenia and the personality trait of novelty seeking . (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory, however, does not posit dopamine overabundance as a complete explanation for schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers have suggested that dopamine systems in the mesolimbic pathway may contribute to the 'positive symptoms' of schizophrenia (whereas problems with dopamine function in the mesocortical pathway may be responsible for the 'negative symptoms', such as avolition and alogia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal expression, thus distribution of the D2 receptor between these areas and the rest of the brain may also be implicated in schizophrenia, specifically in the acute phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Both D4R and A2a receptor (A2aR) mRNAs were present in photoreceptors, inner nuclear layer neurons, and ganglion cells in C57BL/6 mouse retina, and showed cyclic expression with partially overlapping rhythms. (jneurosci.org)
  • whereas
  • The D1 and D5 receptors are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 receptors are members of the D2-like family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also found that all studies using objective indicators or structured interviews to assess stress replicated the gene-environment interaction fully or partially, whereas all non-replications relied on self-reported measures of adversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • D2Sh
  • D2 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2), of which there are two forms: D2Sh (short) and D2Lh (long): The D2Sh form is pre-synaptically situated, having modulatory functions (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • limbic system
  • A relative excess of these receptors within the limbic system means Broca's area, which can produce illogical language, has an abnormal connection to Wernicke's area, which comprehends language but does not create it. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • The researchers found that the D4.7 variant, unlike its D4.2 and D4.4 counterparts, was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain region associated with impulsivity and symptoms of ADHD in humans. (redorbit.com)
  • Our results suggest that psychostimulants might reduce glutamate release by amplifying this D4/D2S interaction," said Dr. Sergi Ferre, primary author for the study. (redorbit.com)
  • Y.: 'Functional coupling between metabotropic glutamate receptors and G proteins in rat brain membranes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The currently known superfamily members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs (this family), the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead to new medications for the treatment of ADHD. (redorbit.com)
  • who found that a gene-environment interaction (GxE) may explain why life stress is a predictor for depressive episodes in some individuals, but not in others, depending on an allelic variation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormones, neurotransmitters, and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • D2 receptor signaling may mediate protein kinase B, arrestin beta 2, and GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of these proteins results in stunting of the hyperlocomotion in amphetamine treated rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine interacts with membrane receptors belonging to the family of seven transmembrane domain G-protein coupled receptors, with activation leading to the formation of second messengers, and the activation or repression of specific signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • prolactin
  • Although standard antipsychotics increase dopamine metabolism or plasma prolactin levels in rodents, L-745,870 (≤30 mg/kg p.o.) had no effect in these assays. (aspetjournals.org)
  • behavior
  • When novelty seeking is defined as a decision process (i.e. in terms of the tradeoff between foregoing a familiar choice option in favor of deciding to explore a novel choice option), dopamine is directly shown to increase novelty seeking behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The lack of a suitable in vivo assay for D4 receptor activation prompted the use of in vivo surrogate marker assays which confirmed that doses of 5-60 μg/kg L-745,870 would be sufficient to occupy 50% D4 receptors in the brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus we hypothesize that activation of the dopamine 1 and/or 5 receptor will increase skeletal muscle cAMP levels thereby modulating skeletal muscle mass and force production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • stimulate
  • Actions of the β1 receptor include: stimulate viscous, amylase-filled secretions from salivary glands Increase cardiac output Increase heart rate in sinoatrial node (SA node) (chronotropic effect) Increase atrial cardiac muscle contractility. (wikipedia.org)