• skeletal
  • In the present study, we determined whether PC-1 plays a role in the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that both skeletal muscle PC-1 content and insulin receptor content, but not BMI, were independent predictors of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These studies raise the possibility that increased expression of PC-1 and a decreased insulin receptor content in skeletal muscle may be involved in the insulin resistance of obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Frank-Starling mechanism occurs as the result of the length-tension relationship observed in skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most relaxed skeletal muscle fibers, passive elastic properties maintain the muscle fibers length near optimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to relate the work of the heart to skeletal muscle mechanics, Frank observed changes in diastolic pressure with varying volumes of the frog ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nAChRs are cholinergic receptors found in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous systems (PNS) and skeletal muscles, these receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with binding sites for acetylcholine and other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a growing research database which suggests that skeletal muscles, particularly postural muscles of the lower limb, undergo atrophy and structural and metabolic alterations during space flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unloading of skeletal muscle, both on Earth and during spaceflight, results in remodeling of muscle (atrophic response) as an adaptation to the reduced loads placed upon it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S. human space program, the only in-flight countermeasure to skeletal muscle functional deficits that has been utilized thus far is physical exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective knowledge gained from these mission has aided in the evolution of exercise hardware and protocols in attempts to refine the approach to prevention of spaceflight-induced muscle atrophy and the concomitant deficits in skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to human crewmembers during both short- and long-duration mission for the study of skeletal muscle adaptation to microgravity and the efficacy of countermeasures has been, and continues to be, limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, a more complete understanding of physiologic models for conduct of both fundamental and applied skeletal muscle research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to limitations in the number of spaceflights and crewmembers in which novel countermeasures can be tested, future development, evaluation and validation of new countermeasures to the effects of skeletal muscle unloading will likely employ variations of these same basic ground-based models. (wikipedia.org)
  • NERVE
  • Galvani found that he could make the prepared leg of a frog (see the Construction section) twitch by connecting a metal circuit from a nerve to a muscle, thus inventing the first frog galvanoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subclavian vein and phrenic nerve pass anteriorly to the anterior scalene as the muscle crosses over the first rib. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Muscle fiber type and citrate synthase activity were determined in the lateral gastrocnemius. (springer.com)
  • The muscles of mastication or masticatory muscles are: a) masseter, b) temporalis, c) medial pterygoid, d) superior belly of the lateral pterygoid, e) anterior digastrics, f) geniohyoid, g) mylohyoid h) inferior belly of the lateral pterygoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two planes arise in common - the superficial one by tendinous (the initial portion of the muscle is actually just tendon) and the deeper by muscular fibers - from the supinator crest of ulna, the lateral epicondyle of humerus, the radial collateral ligament, and the annular radial ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • the greater part of this portion of the muscle is inserted into the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body of the radius, midway between the oblique line and the head of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2000) the chickens that fasted during the first days of life did not regain their body weight or breast muscle weight by day 41, however chickens that fasted between day 4 and 6 post hatch had full growth compensation by day 41. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000) concluded that sufficient feed directly post hatch may be critical for later muscle development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves
  • Especially in the legs, the muscle contractions are readily observed and the nerves are easily dissected out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the nerves of the brachial plexus pass through the space between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, that area is sometimes targeted with the administration of regional anesthesia by physicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • While none of these ground-based analogs provides a perfect simulation of human microgravity exposure during spaceflight, each is useful for study of particular aspects of muscle unloading as well as for investigation of sensorimotor alterations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6MWT
  • The relationship between the 6MWT distance and the other parameters was analyzed using a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. (apta.org)
  • metabolic
  • and 2) determine the relationship between muscle metabolic economy and muscle oxidative capacity and fiber type. (springer.com)
  • Type IIa fiber distribution was inversely related to all measures of exercise economy ( r from −0.51 to −0.64) and citrate synthase activity was inversely related to muscle metabolic economy at MI ( r =−0.56). (springer.com)
  • fatigue
  • Many people assume that the reason for an increased level of fatigue and muscle weakness is only a diet low in potassium. (fitday.com)
  • However, in addition to calcium and phosphorous, the body needs a dose of magnesium in order to avoid cramps, muscle fatigue and other conditions that may affect your muscles. (fitday.com)
  • pairs
  • In a vague approximation of human muscles, PAMs are usually grouped in pairs: one agonist and one antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscles are named from Greek σκαληνός, or skalenos, meaning uneven as the pairs are all of differing length Musculi coli base Scalene muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • positively
  • Insulin stimulation of muscle glucose transport was negatively related to muscle PC-1 content ( r = −0.68, P = 0.001) and positively related to insulin receptor content ( r = 0.60, P = 0.005). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, Type IIa fiber distribution and citrate synthase activity were positively related to \(\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2{\rm max}}\) and muscle OxPhos at HI and MI ( r from 0.49 to 0.70). (springer.com)
  • human
  • Argov Z, De Stefano N, Arnold DL (1996) ADP recovery after a brief ischemic exercise in normal and diseased human muscle-a 31P MRS study. (springer.com)
  • Matteucci used the frog galvanoscope to study the relationship of electricity to muscles, including in freshly amputated human limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • plantar
  • Therefore, exaggerated muscle flexor activity may counteract the effects of the plantar flexors by offloading the leg and interfering with the limb's ability to generate the appropriate A/P GRFs. (utexas.edu)
  • describe
  • However, neither Frank nor Starling was the first to describe the relationship between the end-diastolic volume and the regulation of cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • In older texts, the term "supinator longus" was used to refer to the brachioradialis, and "supinator brevis" was used to describe the muscle now known as the supinator. (wikipedia.org)
  • isometric
  • I would also suggest that in terms of neurophysiology you try to encompass recruitment patterns of the concentric/isometric/eccentric contractions rather than just describing the F-V relationship. (t-nation.com)
  • The greatest isometric active tension is developed when a muscle is at its optimal length. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Na+- and CA2+-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ activities (alpha iCa) of sheep ventricular muscle and Purkinje strands to study the interrelationship between Na+ and Ca2+ electrochemical gradients (delta muNa and delta muCa) under various conditions. (rupress.org)
  • Frogs were particularly suitable for the study of muscle activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • This is one of the functions we all can relate to, but it is certainly not the most important function of our muscles. (relationshipshealthandbehavior.com)
  • In broiler chickens the first week of life is not only important for further development of the gastrointestinal tract and important immune related organs but is also an important period for muscle production. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanics
  • Future studies will incorporate foot-pelvic mechanics to further elucidate the complex relationships between these variables and their contribution to disrupted hemiparetic GRFs. (utexas.edu)
  • stroke
  • The Frank-Starling law of the heart (also known as Starling's law and the Frank-Starling mechanism) represents the relationship between stroke volume and end diastolic volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects
  • Relationships were examined across the entire population of subjects and for subgroups based on the Brunnstrom classification for hemiparetic severity. (utexas.edu)
  • As a group, subjects did not exhibit abnormal vasti activity in early stance, which has been shown to be one of the primary muscle contributors to the braking GRF. (utexas.edu)
  • development
  • When the membrane potential (Vm) was depolarized by 50 mM K+ in ventricular muscle, Vm depolarized by 50 mV, alpha iNa decreased, and alpha iCa increased, with the development of a contracture. (rupress.org)
  • exercise
  • An inverse relationship has been shown between running and cycling exercise economy and maximum oxygen uptake \(\left(\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2{\rm max}}\right). (springer.com)
  • parameters
  • Mechanography (also referred to as jumping mechanography or Muscle Mechanography) is a medical diagnostic measurement method for motion analysis and assessment of muscle function and muscle power by means of physical parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • If a defective muscle has to be substituted, its location will always be known and its substitution becomes easier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body abruptly loses muscle tone, a state known as REM atonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was measured in incubated muscle strips, and PC-1 content, enzymatic activity, and insulin receptor content were measured in solubilized muscle extracts. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Correlation analyses were used to identify the relationships between percent of muscle activity and net A/P GRF impulse (i.e., the time integral of the A/P GRF) within each bin by determining the corresponding Pearson's correlation coefficients. (utexas.edu)
  • Few correlations were found between the non-paretic GRF impulses and muscle activity. (utexas.edu)
  • body
  • Our muscle tone communicates how healthy our body is. (relationshipshealthandbehavior.com)
  • The term "supinator" can also refer more generally to a muscle that causes supination of a part of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • The more work the muscles do, the greater the launch velocity and thus the greater the acceleration and the shorter the time interval of the jump's propulsive phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Such elastic elements can release energy at a much higher rate (higher power) than equivalent muscle mass, thus increasing launch energy to levels beyond what muscle alone is capable of. (wikipedia.org)