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  • genes
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • genes
  • Construction and Properties of Plasmid Vectors Containing the trp Regulatory Region Suitable for Expressing Foreign Genes. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Transfer, Maintenance and Expression of Genes Introduced into Plant Cells Via the Tl Plasmid. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Cloning and transposon insertion mutagenesis of virulence genes of the 100-kilobase plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Central regulatory role for the RpoS sigma factor in expression of Salmonella dublin plasmid virulence genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Independently of the antibiotic pressure, most of the plasmid-backbone genes were expressed at low levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most expressed pBIC1a genes were involved in antibiotic resistance ( bla KPC−2 , bla TEM and aph (3′)-I), in plasmid replication and conjugation, or associated to mobile elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe adaptive responses of E. coli to imipenem-induced stress, and identified plasmid-encoded genes that could be involved in resistance to stressful environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmids designed to express genes in a given host cell type are generally broken down into two broad categories, prokaryotic or eukaryotic, based on the functional elements they contain. (addgene.org)
  • F-plasmids play a crucial role because they contain partition genes that promote the even distribution of plasmids after bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proteins that belong to this category are: Rhizobiaceae fixJ (global regulator inducing expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in microaerobiosis) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium uhpA (activates hexose phosphate transport gene uhpT) E. coli narL and narP (activate nitrate reductase operon) Enterobacteria rcsB (regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric and plant pathogenesis) Bordetella pertussis bvgA (virulence factor) Bacillus subtilis comA (involved in expression of late-expressing competence genes) 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these plasmids most of the genes have been removed, leaving only genes essential for replication and one or more selectable markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broad-Host-Range Plasmids from Agricultural Soils Have IncP-1 Backbones with Diverse Accessory Genes", Appl Environ Microbiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Plasmid cured strains, however, do not show this dependency on Ca 2+ and are thus, Ca 2+ independent (CI). (springer.com)
  • Replication of the plasmid pBR322, and the accumulation and life time of its primer transcript, RNAII, and replication inhibitor, RNAI, were measured in an isogenic relA + /relA pair of E. coli strains during exponential growth, or following amino acid starvation, or during treatment with chloramphenicol. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coli
  • Using E. coli TOP10 strain harboring a multi-replicon IncFII K -IncFIB bla KPC−2 -gene carrying plasmid pBIC1a from K. pneumoniae ST-258 clinical isolate BIC-1, we aimed to identify basal gene expression and the effects of imipenem exposure using whole transcriptome approach by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). (frontiersin.org)
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • 2012. Diversity, biology and evolution of IncQ-family plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • Little is known about the biology of multi-drug resistant plasmids and the reasons of their successful dissemination. (frontiersin.org)
  • It also welcomes applications of plasmid biology to biotechnology and medicine, and of bioinformatics for studies of genomes. (elsevier.com)
  • pBR322
  • For example, pBR322 is a low copy number plasmid (~20 copies/cell) from which several very high copy number cloning vectors (~1000 copies/cell) have been derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragment
  • When cloning by restriction digest and ligation, you use restriction enzymes to cut open a plasmid (backbone) and insert a linear fragment of DNA (insert) that has been cut by compatible restriction enzymes. (addgene.org)
  • evolution
  • Plasmid publishes original research on genetic elements in all kingdoms of life with emphasis on maintenance, transmission and evolution of extrachromosomal elements . (elsevier.com)
  • host
  • Plasmids utilize their host cell's replication machinery in order to replicate. (addgene.org)
  • Ler is regulated by many factors such as plasmid encoded regulator (Per), integration host factor, Fis, BipA, a positive regulatory loop involving GrlA, and quorum sensing mediated by luxS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spread
  • The diffusion of KPC-2 carbapenemase is closely related to the spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae of the clonal-group 258 and linked to IncFII K plasmids. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • genes
  • In these plasmids most of the genes have been removed, leaving only genes essential for replication and one or more selectable markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • David H. Figurski, Robert F. Pohlman, David H. Bechhofer, Alice S. Prince and Christie A. Kelton: "Broad host range plasmid RK2 encodes multiple kil genes potentially lethal to Escherichia coli host cells", Genetics, Volume 79. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broad-Host-Range Plasmids from Agricultural Soils Have IncP-1 Backbones with Diverse Accessory Genes", Appl Environ Microbiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a novel mechanism for regulation of gene expression, the epigenetic silencing of genes by miRNAs, was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her laboratory studies regulation of expression of the genes of the DNA oncoviruses SV40, hepatitis B virus, and Epstein-Barr virus and the roles the nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α plays in breast cancer and regulating the activities of estrogen receptor α. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium naturally inserts DNA into plants from its Ti plasmid, and scientists use this to insert genes of interest into various plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCC6803 is contained within approximately 12 copies of a single chromosome (3.57 megabases), three small plasmids: pCC5.2 (5.2 kb) pCA2.4 (2.4 kb), and pCB2.4 (2.4 kb) and four large plasmids: pSYSM (120 kb), pSYSX (106 kb), pSYSA (103kb), and pSYSG (44 kb). (wikipedia.org)