• novel
  • Several novel susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes or quantitative traits related to glucose metabolism in European populations. (jove.com)
  • As there is limited genetic variation within the classical inbred strains, the use of wild-derived strains of mice, such as MOLF/Ei contributes added genetic diversity and has allowed for the identification of novel genes that play an important role in innate immunity ( 10 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • regulator
  • It is a member of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily of transporters, which includes many bacterial transport systems, the putative peptide transporter from the major histocompatibility locus, and the product of the cystic fibrosis gene (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, CFTR). (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up-regulates the expression of many virulence factors including biofilm formation to mediate pathogenesis and evasion of the host immune system in the late phases of growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ler is regulated by many factors such as plasmid encoded regulator (Per), integration host factor, Fis, BipA, a positive regulatory loop involving GrlA, and quorum sensing mediated by luxS. (wikipedia.org)
  • BipA, a ribosomal binding GTPase and prolific regulator of EPEC virulence, transcriptionally regulates Ler from an upstream position where it also regulates other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade tissues and cause an infectious disease is the result of a multi-factorial process supported by the huge number of virulence factors inherent to this microorganism tightly regulated by the accessory gene regulator ( agr ). (springer.com)
  • The ability of S. aureus to produce infection involves a wide variety of virulence determinants, such as exotoxins, adhesins and immune evasion genes, constituting a gene framework that is under the control of global regulators, most notably the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator ( agr ). (springer.com)
  • TspO of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in signal transduction, functioning as a negative regulator of the expression of some photosynthesis genes (PpsR/AppA repressor/antirepressor regulon). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Understanding genetic determinants of a microbial phenotype generally involves creating and comparing isogenic strains differing at the locus of interest, but the naturally existing genomic and phenotypic diversity of microbial populations has rarely been exploited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Developments in sequencing technology now allow rapid identification of genetic differences among phenotypic variants, but it remains a time-consuming process to verify the function of each genetic variation by constructing isogenic strains (chimeras) in which only one gene of interest differs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Testing existing variants can reduce the amount of time and resources spent on constructing isogenic strains, so we hypothesized that using naturally occurring genomic diversity can accelerate gene function discovery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strains with both genes or only hmbR were present at similar frequencies among disease isolates as compared with carriage isolates. (bl.uk)
  • Strains with only hpuAB gene were under-represented among disease isolates, possibly due to the receptor having a high level of immunogenicity or being inefficient in iron acquisition during systemic spread. (bl.uk)
  • Although Staphylococcus infections were once readily treatable with antibiotics, some strains have acquired genes making them resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our results revealed that exposure to subMICs of oxacillin had an impact on agr locus expression modifying the relative levels of expression with increases in 11 strains and with decreases in 3 strains. (springer.com)
  • operon
  • Configurations that genes form in bacterial chromosomes, e.g. chromosomal gene clusters (without a reference to the operon structure, the order of genes, or their orientation) will be further called cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • species
  • We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed overall co-localization tendencies of these genes, belonging to a large and important segment of metabolism, simultaneously in a broad number of bacterial species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Many bacterial species can utilize inversion to change the expression of certain genes for the benefit of the bacterium during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Previous work in our laboratory has identified three loci ( Ity, Ity2 , and Ity3 ) in the wild-derived MOLF/Ei mice influencing survival after infection with Salmonella typhimurium . (frontiersin.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • Here, we describe an algorithm, Local Distribution of Short Sequences for Prokaryotes (LDSS-P), to identify conserved short motifs located at specific positions in the promoters of co-expressed prokaryotic genes. (stanford.edu)
  • CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is a genetic perturbation technique that allows for sequence-specific repression or activation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Furthermore, we studied the genetic basis of the agr locus and their potential association with the expression levels. (springer.com)
  • Based on the bacterial genetic immune system - CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) pathway, the technique provides a complementary approach to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • He conducted his Ph.D. research under the guidance of Michael Levine at UC Berkeley, where he studied cis-regulatory sequences that modulate the precision and robustness of gene expression (in particular shadow enhancers and paused promoters). (stanford.edu)
  • By regulating the folding of this linear sequence into a higher order structure, a cell might change which regulatory sequences have access to which genes, and achieve different behavioral states. (stanford.edu)
  • To evaluate the effect of variation in each gene, we performed an in silico screen of 616 previously published genome sequences to identify pairs of closely-related, serotype-matched isolates that differ at the gene of interest, and compared their resistance to neutrophil-killing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that a clone containing Myf5 and 140 kb of upstream sequences is sufficient to recapitulate the known expression patterns of both genes. (biologists.org)
  • The DNA sequences of agr locus were obtained by whole genome sequencing. (springer.com)
  • BvgR binds to a consensus sequence present within the coding sequences of at least some Bvg-repressed genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The number of such links per class range from zero to eight, demonstrating varying preferences of respective genes towards a specific chromosomal neighborhood. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The chromosomal region (locus) contained 70 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further screening of the gene identified multiple additional cases of FOXP2 disruption, including different point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, providing evidence that damage to one copy of this gene is sufficient to derail speech and language development. (wikipedia.org)
  • candidate genes
  • This method allowed rapid examination of multiple candidate genes and found phenotypic differences apparently associated with variation in SP_1645, a RelA/ SpoT homolog (RSH) involved in the stringent response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phylogeny
  • Two major factors influencing the cassette-forming tendency are gene function and bacterial phylogeny. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mrf4 expression requires at least four elements, one of which may be shared with Myf5, providing a possible explanation for the linkage of these genes throughout vertebrate phylogeny. (biologists.org)
  • homologous
  • The silent versions of this gene, PilS, can use homologous recombination to combine with parts of the PilE gene and thus create a different phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The gene organization of the phenol catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas CF600 has been investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using transposon mutagenesis, polypeptide analysis and expression of subfragments of DNA, the genes encoding the first four enzymatic steps of the pathway have been individually mapped and found to lie adjacent to each other. (diva-portal.org)
  • It has been suggested that the TspO regulatory pathway works by regulating the efflux of certain tetrapyrrole intermediates of the haem/bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways in response to the availability of molecular oxygen, thereby causing the accumulation of a biosynthetic intermediate that serves as a corepressor for the regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • All αr35 loci have recognizable σ70-dependent promoters showing a -35/-10 consensus motif CTTAGAC-n17-CTATAT previously shown to be widely conserved among several other genera in the α-subgroup of proteobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • Unlike most other Bordetella toxins, tracheal cytotoxin is expressed constitutively, being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • While individual gene clusters appear as quite diverse structures, there appear to be a few general features, for example, linking structure with the epigenetic state. (stanford.edu)
  • The spherical bacterial cells (cocci) typically occur in irregular clusters [Gr. staphyle =bunch of grapes]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. (jove.com)
  • Repression
  • Repression by HNS can be relieved locus-specifically by various mechanisms. (uni-koeln.de)
  • These modifications are associated either with gene activation, repression, or a primed state of gene that supports more rapid and robust activation of expression after perception of appropriate signals (microbe-associated molecular patterns, light, hormones, etc.) 3-7 . (jove.com)
  • residues
  • This is accomplished by introducing point mutations in the two catalytic residues (D10A and H840A) of the gene encoding Cas9. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • αr45 is a family of bacterial small non-coding RNAs with representatives in a broad group of α-proteobacteria from the order Rhizobiales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • This murine experimental model has been used to identify several genes and pathways involved in disease pathogenesis ( 5 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • aureus
  • In addition, antivirulence properties of the inhibitor were confirmed with the observation of a significant reduction in the expression of representative virulence genes like fnbA, hla and hld that are governed under S. aureus QS. (frontiersin.org)
  • repress
  • Some cis-acting sRNAs act as riboswitches, which have receptors for specific environmental or metabolic signals and activate or repress genes based on these signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by RIDA (Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA), and converted back to the active DnaA-ATP form by DARS (DnaA Reactivating Sequence, which is itself regulated by Fis and IHF). (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Outlined is how to generate high quality ChIP DNA template derived from the colorectal carcinoma cell line, HCT116, in order to build a high-resolution map through sequencing to determine the genes bound by TCF7L2, giving further insight in to its key role in the pathogenesis of complex traits. (jove.com)