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  • potassium
  • KCNK5) channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (mdpi.com)
  • vivo
  • It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. (hindawi.com)
  • van Parijs L, Perez VL, Biuckians A, Maki RG, London CA, and Abbas AK (1997) Role of interleukin 12 and costimulators in T cell anergy in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, Kv1.3 blockers paralyze effector-memory T cells at the sites of inflammation and prevent their reactivation in inflamed tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding at least ADA , CAV1 , IGF2R , and PTPRC . (rcsb.org)
  • Our data suggest that Gstm1 is a novel regulator of VSMC proliferation and migration through its role in handling reactive oxygen species. (ahajournals.org)
  • stimulation
  • In humans, K 2P 5.1 channels are upregulated upon T cell stimulation and influence T cell effector functions. (mdpi.com)
  • In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-associated myelin-specific T cells from the blood are predominantly co-stimulation-independent effector-memory T cells that express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • 3 To whom correspondence should be addressed: Dept. of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, 1664 N Virginia St., MS0575, Reno NV 89557. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • miR-650 has been found to be important in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and in normal B-lymphocyte physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • To establish causality, we show that knockdown of Gstm1 by small interfering RNA results in increased proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, as well as in increased reactive oxygen species levels and VSMC migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • regulation
  • In addition, ABCG1 (in conjunction with ABCA1) has been implicated in the regulation of β-cell function and insulin secretion ( 8 ), and more recently in the regulation of triglyceride storage in adipocytes ( 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ALDOA also contributes to other "moonlighting" functions such as muscle maintenance, regulation of cell shape and motility, striated muscle contraction, actin cytoskeleton organization, and regulation of cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • To improve cardiac regeneration after injury it is important to identify factors and mechanisms stimulating or inhibiting cardiomyocyte proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, in bone transplant, stem cells are able to find their way back through tracking mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Recruits channels, receptors and signaling molecules to discrete plasma membrane domains in polarized cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling by many receptors is dependent on nRTKs including T-cell receptors (TCR), B-cell receptors (BCR), IL-2 receptors (IL-2R), Ig receptors, erythropoietin (EpoR) and prolactin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 and CD8 receptors on T lymphocytes require for their signaling the Src family member Lck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • These discoveries were noted by Science magazine as "Cell Signaling Breakthroughs of the Year" in 2005 and 2006. (uci.edu)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that Bach2 is required to sustain high levels of B cell proliferation in response to BCR signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is well established by now that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, apart from their signaling role in the CNS, can also directly influence T lymphocyte functions ( Levite, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • intracellular
  • Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF)-induced proliferation of human coronary artery VSMCs was attenuated by lowering intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and was enhanced by elevating [Ca 2+ ] i . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Intracellular second messengers such as cGMP and cAMP undergo rapid changes in concentration in a response to a wide variety of cell specific stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • To activate an immune response an T-lymphocyte has to come into contact with an macrophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, it should be possible to selectively suppress effector-memory T cells with a Kv1.3-specific blocker and thereby ameliorate many autoimmune diseases without compromising the protective immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Acts also as a serine exopeptidase with a dipeptidyl peptidase activity that regulates various physiological processes by cleaving peptides in the circulation, including many chemokines, mitogenic growth factors, neuropeptides and peptide hormones (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • This cytokine and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) form a heterodimer that functions as a pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed Primary hypereosinophelia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorder characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is proposed that ALDOA overexpression enhances glycolysis in these tumor cells, promoting their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Members of this family are secreted or membrane-anchored proteins mainly found in cells associated with the immune system. (genecards.org)
  • In addition, it influences the proliferation capacity in B-cells through the targeting of proteins CDK1, ING4 and EBF3 (early B-cell factor 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Clinical trials using antibodies that block the ligation of PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) or CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), with their ligands, revealed them to be efficient in more than 15 cancer types, including metastatic melanoma, bladder carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and breast and renal cell carcinoma [ 9 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • extracellular
  • RANKL's extracellular domains are similar to other TNF family members in regards to the structural homology and are able to cleave from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Cahalan's group, together with Ian Parker, pioneered the use of two-photon microscopy to image cell motility and interaction dynamics inside lymphoid organs. (uci.edu)
  • the interaction is enhanced in a interleukin-12-dependent manner in activated lymphocytes (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • Therefore, the need to clarify the nature of interaction between Glu and T lymphocytes is of obvious biological and clinical importance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • inflammation
  • RANKL derived from other cell types contributes to bone loss in conditions involving inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in lytic lesions caused by cancer, such as in multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, cinnamon extract was observed to have high and strong inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, respectively, in H. pylori-infected gastric cells. (drugs.com)
  • Cytokine
  • indicated that the exposure of retinal neurosensory and glial cells to HIV Tat resulted in increased activation and release of proinflammatory mediators, predominantly the chemokine and neurotoxic factor CXCL10 and the cytokine TNF- α [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If the results show patients with low levels of lymphocytes, absence of granulocytes or absence of thymus then the patient may be suspected to have RD. RD can only be treated temporarily through Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and Cytokine Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 led to increased cell proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of TA-specific CD8+ T cells and TIL CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • IκB kinase β plays a critical role in TNFR1 phosphorylation of S381, which leads to subsequent T cell migration and accumulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the rapid accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the blood, resulting in a drop of the other cell types, such as red blood cells and platelets. (biopathholdings.com)
  • For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, which is a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • Immature DC treated with VIP or PACAP up-regulate CD86 expression, stimulate T cell proliferation and promote Th2-type responses while inhibiting the Th1-type proinflammatory response ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by polyclonal activation of both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes with the release of inflammatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, they observed that retinal cells also demonstrated increased cell activation as evidenced by augmented expression of GFAP, which is due to the activation of Muller glial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • 33 In vitro experimentation was conducted in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan to evaluate their effect on secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. (drugs.com)
  • Consistently, we observed in inflammatory bowel disease specimens that TNFR1 was constitutively phosphorylated on S381 in those inflammatory T cells, which had accumulated in high numbers in the inflamed mucosa. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acts as a scaffold that presents selectin carbohydrate ligands in a clustered, tissue specific manner to allow for higher avidity interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells during the inflammatory process. (githubusercontent.com)
  • It mediates cell-cell interaction during inflammatory responses. (githubusercontent.com)
  • BLT1 activation is associated with pro-inflammatory responses in cells, tissues, and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of BLT2 is associated with pro-inflammatory responses by cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by expansion in the blood and bone marrow of mature myeloid cells and their precursors. (biopathholdings.com)
  • Because even on B-cell precursors, it can be used to stain a wider range of cells than can the alternative B-cell marker CD20, but the latter is more commonly retained on mature B-cell lymphomas, so that the two are often used together in immunohistochemistry panels. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • In LSCC, its upregulation correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis, while its downregulation reduces tumor cell motility and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only poly-ubiquitination on defined lysines, mostly on K48 and K29, is related to degradation by the proteasome (referred to as the "molecular kiss of death"), while other polyubiquitinations (e.g. on K63, K11, K6 and M1) and monoubiquitinations may regulate processes such as endocytic trafficking, inflammation, translation and DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • IL-33 is also considered an "alarmin" which is promptly discharging from its producing cells upon cellular damage or cellular stress [ 11 ]. (transpopmed.org)
  • pathway
  • Grb2 plays an essential role in cancer cell activation via the RAS pathway. (biopathholdings.com)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its interaction with PVR and the activity is directed through its ITIM domain TIGIT regulates T-cell mediated immunity via the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway can potentially be targeted to enhance killing of HIV infected cells during "Shock and Kill" HIV curative approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once matured and circulating throughout the peripheral system, T-cells still undergo deleterious age-dependent changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • T-lymphocyte turnover is promoted by the production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , all of which promote HIV replication [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is proposed that ALDOA overexpression enhances glycolysis in these tumor cells, promoting their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Transplantation of stem cells are taken from the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord of healthy, matched donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This age-associated decrease of thymic epithelial volume results in a reduction/exhaustion on the number of thymocytes (i.e. pre-mature T-cells), thus reducing output of peripheral naïve T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymus
  • After birth, the decline of T-cell function begins with the progressive involution of the thymus, which is the organ essential for T-cell maturation following the migration of precursor cells from the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • Chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin and etoposide enhance the de novo synthesis of ceramide in studies done on mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)