• spherical equivalent
  • Hyperopia was defined as a right spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of ≥+2.00 dioptres (D), myopia as ≤-0.50D and astigmatism as a cylindrical error of ≥1.00D.Results: The mean SER was similar at age 6-7 yrs (p=0.9), however, at 12-13 yrs, children in Northern Ireland had a significantly less hyperopic mean SER (+0.66D) than children in Sydney (+0.83D, p=0.008). (ulster.ac.uk)
  • myopia
  • Several chromosomal regions have been linked to high myopia (12q, 17q, and 18q), to quantitative refraction among twins (3q, 4q, 8p, and 11p), and to families with moderate myopia (22q). (arvojournals.org)
  • It has been well established that myopia clusters within families, and familial high myopia (refraction of −6 D or less) has been linked to long-arm regions on chromosomes 7, 12, and 18. (arvojournals.org)
  • glaucoma
  • The services that eye care professionals offer are varied and include: Cataracts surgery Glaucoma surgery Refraction Rehabilitative care The chart below shows the number of eye care professionals in the various regions and also the progress made to restore sight to people with Cataracts in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prisms
  • Accommodation and Convergence of the Eyes (1882) Tests and Studies of the Ocular Muscles (1898) Golden Rules of Refraction (1900) Clinical Use of Prisms and the Decentering of Lenses (1908) In 1893 he married Grace Rivers daughter of Alexander Monteath of Broich and Duchally in Perthshire. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • However, it is known that the lacrimal glands and the conjunctiva contribute to ocular defenses via secretion of both immunoglobulins and lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercises
  • Functional pseudomyopia is managed though modification of working conditions, an updated refraction, typically involving a reduction of a myopic prescription to some lower myopic prescription, or through appropriate ocular exercises. (wikipedia.org)
  • French ophthalmologist Louis Emile Javal, began using ocular exercises to treat strabismus (wandering eye) and described the practice of orthoptics in his writings in the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • vision
  • Results from this investigation are expected to help define the causes of the ocular structure and vision changes associated with long duration space flight, and assist in the development of countermeasures. (nasa.gov)
  • Changes
  • More than half of American astronauts have developed ocular refraction changes after long duration space flights. (nasa.gov)
  • Noninvasive techniques are used to assess arterial and venous dimensions and flow parameters, ocular pressure and structure, and changes in intracranial pressure. (nasa.gov)
  • surface
  • It is equal to 1/ k in dioptres, where k is the distance between the far point and either the spectacle plane ( spectacle refraction ), or the principal point of the eye, or the refracting surface of the reduced eye ( ocular refraction ), in metres. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • common
  • Ocular asteroids must be distinguished from the more common typical vitreous floaters, which are usually fibrillar or cellular condensates. (wikipedia.org)