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  • genes
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer involves removing nuclei, which contain the cellular DNA (genes) from egg cells, and replacing them with the nuclei of donor cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Scientists have also done extensive research into the combination of genes from different species, e.g. adding human (and other animal) genes to bacteria and farm animals to mass-produce insulin and spider silk proteins . (bionity.com)
  • During somatic cell nuclear transfer, the oocyte turns off tissue specific genes in the Somatic cell nucleus and turns back on embryonic specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along the way, most of the mitochondrion's 3,000 genes ended up being transferred to the cell nucleus. (gerardnadal.com)
  • the remaining genes are encoded in the cell nucleus and the resultant proteins are transported to the mitochondria. (gerardnadal.com)
  • For the purpose of this report, generating an individual animal or person that derives its nuclear genes from a diploid cell taken from an embryo, fetus, or born individual of the same species. (chipbennett.net)
  • A large, multi-institutional research team involved in the NIH Epigenome Roadmap Project has published a sweeping analysis of how genes are turned on and off to direct early human development. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Each functionally distinct generation of cells subsequently differentiates itself from its predecessors in the developing embryo by expressing only a selection of its full complement of genes, while actively suppressing others. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • The researchers found in their analysis of those modifications across the genome referred to, collectively, as the epigenome - that master genes that govern the regulation of early embryonic development tend largely to be switched off by H3K27me3 histone methylation. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • where an embryo, no larger than a speck of dust, can have its genes scanned for diseases, or one day be designed with new strengths and talents. (pbs.org)
  • Most members of the FOX proteins are typically involved in the formation of certain structures of an embryo, where mutations in these genes are evident through the human developmental disorders that result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usage of the term "having a gene" (e.g., "good genes," "hair colour gene") typically refers to containing a different allele of the same, shared gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Melton and Eggan's first nuclear transfer experiments will attempt to create diabetes specific stem cells by removing the nuclei from skin cells taken from diabetic volunteers at the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at Columbia University Medical Center and inserting them into donor eggs from which the nuclei have been removed. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Scientists in Britain have been granted permission to create human-animal hybrid embryos by injecting human DNA into cows' eggs for stem cell research. (bionity.com)
  • Instead of using human eggs, the researchers will remove the nuclei from cows' eggs and replace them with cells from the patients to create cloned stem cell lines that contain the same genetic mutation that results in these neurological disorders. (bionity.com)
  • Minger cited the short supply of human eggs left over from in vitro fertilization, which have been used for stem cell research but have to be acquired through surgery on the women. (bionity.com)
  • Specifically, the FDA is discussing the genetic manipulation of human eggs and embryos in order to prevent inherited mitochondrial disease and treat infertility. (pearltrees.com)
  • And all of the sudden you can do anything you want with these human embryos and eggs, which couldn't be done before. (pbs.org)
  • They could surgically remove their eggs and fertilize them in the lab, yet they couldn't figure out why the embryos failed to develop into pregnancies once they were returned to the mother. (pbs.org)
  • Thirty hybrid embryos were created and sent to Trans Ova Genetics, which implanted the fertilized eggs in domestic cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical plate
  • Originating from the lateral ganglionic eminence, one of the three embryonic structures that eventually become specific parts of the brain, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) is a group of cells that develop along the surface of the ventricular layer of the brain, following the creation of the cortical plate in embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The technique involved transplanting the nucleus from an undifferentiated cell of one sheep into the egg of another sheep from which nucleus had been removed. (hubpages.com)
  • The resulting egg cell was tricked into acting like an embryo, dividing and becoming all the differentiated cells of a new individual. (hubpages.com)
  • While we understand and respect the sincerely held beliefs of those who oppose this research, we are equally sincere in our belief that the life-and-death medical needs of countless suffering children and adults justifies moving forward with this research," Summers said, referring to the controversy over embryonic stem cell work. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Research involving human embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells - which can differentiate into any cell or tissue type in the body - requires the destruction of a human embryo, albeit a blastocyst of only a few hundred cells, literally half the size of the period at the end of this sentence. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Melton, in collaboration with Kevin Eggan and Douglas Powers of Boston IVF , has already created 31 stem cell lines using left-over frozen embryos donated by couples who went through in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has distributed those stem cell lines to scientists around the world. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Restrictions on cloning and stem cell research makes chimera research a more attractive alternative in some researchers' eyes. (bionity.com)
  • We feel that the development of disease-specific human embryonic stem cell lines from individuals suffering from genetic forms of neurodegenerative disorders will stimulate both basic research and the development of new treatments for devastating brain diseases," Dr. Stephen Minger, of the stem cell biology laboratory at King's College London, said in a release. (bionity.com)
  • The only bovine element would be found in DNA outside the nucleus of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • In biology, Reprogramming refers to erasure and remodeling of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, during mammalian development or in cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The mitochondria are frequently referred to as the powerhouse of the cell, because they take in by-products of glucose and extract large amounts of energy for use by the cell. (gerardnadal.com)
  • It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as 'therapeutic cloning. (bootstrike.com)
  • At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed. (bootstrike.com)
  • The nucleus of the somatic cell is then inserted into the enucleated egg cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by the host cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • The egg, now containing the nucleus of a somatic cell, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. (bootstrike.com)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute,the University of California San Francisco, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (bootstrike.com)
  • Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. (bootstrike.com)
  • Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm). (pearltrees.com)
  • The discovery of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) provided a pioneering step in stem cell research. (asu.edu)
  • According to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the standard American source on stem cell research, three characteristics of stem cells differentiate them from other cell types: (1) they are unspecialized cells that (2) divide for long periods, renewing themselves and (3) can give rise to specialized cells, such as muscle and skin cells, under particular physiological and experimental conditions. (asu.edu)
  • Posts in this category pertain to abortion, human cloning, embryonic stem cell research, and other issues pertaining to the advancement of the culture of life and to the respect and protection of the sanctity of life. (chipbennett.net)
  • The measure specifically bans human cloning, but would permit all federally allowed stem cell research in the state. (chipbennett.net)
  • In cattle, when individual cells from 4- and 8-cell embryos and implanted in different foster mothers, they can develop normally into calves and this technique has been used routinely within cattle breeding schemes for over 10 years. (chipbennett.net)
  • Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another is through scores of unique chemical modifications to proteins known as histones, which form the scaffolding around which DNA winds in the nucleus of the cell. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • More powerful gene-sequencing tools have increasingly been uncovering disease secrets in DNA within the cell nucleus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • And one also wonders how Tauer gets from "human embryonic stem cell research" to "reproductive cloning" in this article? (lifeissues.net)
  • The short answer to the question as to how Tauer gets from "human embryonic stem cell research" to "reproductive cloning" is as follows. (lifeissues.net)
  • The term asymmetric cell division usually refers to such intrinsic asymmetric divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryome" may also refer to the totality of the physical cell markers themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further differentiate to form four structures: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • 2) "Clone or attempt to clone a human being" means to implant in a uterus or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a human male for the purpose of initiating a pregnancy that could result in the creation of a human fetus, or the birth of a human being. (chipbennett.net)
  • The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an important development the scientists from Newcastle reported associated technologies that provide a "proof of concept" for the proposal that frozen zoos (also referred to as genome banks and seed banks) are an effective mechanism to provide an insurance against species extinction and the loss of population genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • The scientists said the hybrid human-bovine embryos could prove useful in pursuing treatments to prevent Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's, as well as spinal cord injuries, diabetes and arthritis. (bionity.com)
  • Led by Bing Ren of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Joseph Ecker of The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and James Thomson of the Morgridge Institute for Research, the scientists also describe novel genetic phenomena likely to play a pivotal role not only in the genesis of the embryo, but that of cancer as well. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • zygote
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this is done the cytoplasmic factors effect the nucleus to become a zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • What is however important to recognize is that both human cloning and cloning human beings raise important ethical questions, as whether stem cells needed for cloning of human parts leads to the dilemma if research on embryonic stem cells is embryo research that comes under the congressional ban. (hubpages.com)
  • In the HSCI experiments, aimed at understanding diseases, the nuclei will be taken from skin cells donated by patients suffering from diabetes, blood diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic Stem Cells come from the earliest phases of an embryo and they are the stems from which all the other embryonic cells originate (in humans, the post zygotic blastula is harvestable until the end of the first trimester. (emutagen.com)
  • However, a separate mass of cells, referred to as the "ventral migratory mass," migrates from the SVZ to the basal forebrain, where it develops into the islands of Calleja. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMOs
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • Frozen at minus-380 degrees Fahrenheit, a human embryo is selected to be thawed, resulting in the birth of Melina, now four years old. (pbs.org)
  • diseases
  • Until now no one had established these frequencies, probably due to methodological reasons - we detected, with a sensitivity of 100%, mitochondrial DNA mixtures in which minority variants were present with a frequency of only 10% - but also because for a long time the research carried out on heteroplasmy was associated with the study of mitochondrial diseases. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By taking into account the large amount of data presented and the scarce information available up to date, we are convinced that it will open a new perspective in the research of mitochondrial DNA-related diseases, as well as in population studies, and evolutionary and forensic field", concludes research director Maria Pilar Aluja. (medicalxpress.com)
  • organisms
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we begin by looking at the technologies that go into the genetic manipulation/creation of new transgenic organisms, we should begin to see how these can be applied to human genomes. (emutagen.com)
  • stage
  • A wave of methylation then takes place during the implantation stage of the embryo, with CpG islands protected from methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most importantly, they are easily accepted into other embryos in the blastomere stage. (emutagen.com)
  • The nucleus started dividing but it never got to a differentiated stage. (emutagen.com)
  • Cloning
  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • however, in primates, these islands are located within the nucleus accumbens, the reward center of the brain, since the olfactory tubercle has practically disappeared in the brains of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The term is sometimes used to sensationalize research that involves mixing biological materials from humans and other species. (bionity.com)
  • development
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • It might refer to the creation of new human beings through the technology Ian Wilmut used to create Dolly, the sheep. (hubpages.com)
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • tissue
  • Although some chimeras do arise naturally, most are produced experimentally, either by mixing cells of very early embryos or by tissue grafting in late embryos or adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphopoiesis is now usually used interchangeably with the term "lymphocytopoiesis" - the making of lymphocytes - but other sources may distinguish between the two, stating that "lymphopoiesis" additionally refers to creating lymphatic tissue, while "lymphocytopoiesis" refers only to the creation of cells in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hugo de Vr
  • Mendel's work went largely unnoticed after its first publication in 1866, but was rediscovered in the late 19th century by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak, who (claimed to have) reached similar conclusions in their own research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of Mendel's work did not gain wide understanding until 1900, after his death, when Hugo de Vries and other scientists rediscovered his research. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Aggregation chimeras are produced by a technique that involves removing the zonae pellucidae from around 8-16 cell embryos of different strains of mice and pushing the morulae together so that the cells can aggregate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many progenitor cells are also referred to as transit cells, sometimes also called transit amplifying cells, the meaning of this term being that the transit cell may found a new sub-lineage but the number of resultant cells is strictly limited (although possibly very large, even trillions yet finite) and the lineage is terminated by cells that die off (by apoptosis) or remain as cells that can no longer divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such cells are CFUs (Colony-forming units - referred to as such because of their ability to form colonies in vitro in artificial media) such as CFU-T. In mice, transplantation of a single pHSC cell can reconstitute a sub-lethally irradiated host (i.e. a mouse that has been irradiated so that all leukocytes are killed) with all these lineages of cells, including all types of lymphocytes via CLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jolla
  • During the remainder of his career, he held the post of J.W. Kieckhefer Distinguished Research Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crick was an important theoretical molecular biologist and played a crucial role in research related to revealing the helical structure of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • In this research we possess modified a technique for culturing cells on biologically relevant smooth substrates using ECM-conjugated polyacrylamide (Pennsylvania) gel that can period the tightness range of 100 PaC150,000 Pennsylvania. (techtasys.com)
  • specific
  • Embryonal carcinoma cells from several sources, including spontaneous and embryo-derived tumors and cultured lines selected to carry specific mutations or even human chromosomes, have contributed to normal chimeras. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • In 1950, Richard Doll published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • back
  • Observations on research going back well over 100 years had elucidated the two great classes of WBC - Myeloid and Lymphoid - and great advances in medicine and science have resulted from these studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • implement 2009Regularity of a other Other security: If the research is the body, times may be been and, also, introduced from opening their slides. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • previous
  • Even though fibrous fibronectin holds the most promise for wound healing, previous research focused on the globular structure, in part because manufacturing fibrous fibronectin was a major engineering challenge. (frogheart.ca)
  • fields
  • Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)