• clone
  • The scientists also attempted to clone macaques using nuclei from adult donors, which is much more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) "Clone or attempt to clone a human being" means to implant in a uterus or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a human male for the purpose of initiating a pregnancy that could result in the creation of a human fetus, or the birth of a human being. (chipbennett.net)
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Scientists have also done extensive research into the combination of genes from different species, e.g. adding human (and other animal) genes to bacteria and farm animals to mass-produce insulin and spider silk proteins . (bionity.com)
  • For the purpose of this report, generating an individual animal or person that derives its nuclear genes from a diploid cell taken from an embryo, fetus, or born individual of the same species. (chipbennett.net)
  • Most members of the FOX proteins are typically involved in the formation of certain structures of an embryo, where mutations in these genes are evident through the human developmental disorders that result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usage of the term "having a gene" (e.g., "good genes," "hair colour gene") typically refers to containing a different allele of the same, shared gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an important development the scientists from Newcastle reported associated technologies that provide a "proof of concept" for the proposal that frozen zoos (also referred to as genome banks and seed banks) are an effective mechanism to provide an insurance against species extinction and the loss of population genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The resulting egg cell was tricked into acting like an embryo, dividing and becoming all the differentiated cells of a new individual. (hubpages.com)
  • What is however important to recognize is that both human cloning and cloning human beings raise important ethical questions, as whether stem cells needed for cloning of human parts leads to the dilemma if research on embryonic stem cells is embryo research that comes under the congressional ban. (hubpages.com)
  • In the HSCI experiments, aimed at understanding diseases, the nuclei will be taken from skin cells donated by patients suffering from diabetes, blood diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Research involving human embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells - which can differentiate into any cell or tissue type in the body - requires the destruction of a human embryo, albeit a blastocyst of only a few hundred cells, literally half the size of the period at the end of this sentence. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Melton and Eggan's first nuclear transfer experiments will attempt to create diabetes specific stem cells by removing the nuclei from skin cells taken from diabetic volunteers at the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at Columbia University Medical Center and inserting them into donor eggs from which the nuclei have been removed. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Instead of using human eggs, the researchers will remove the nuclei from cows' eggs and replace them with cells from the patients to create cloned stem cell lines that contain the same genetic mutation that results in these neurological disorders. (bionity.com)
  • The team used two enzymes to erase the epigenetic memory of the transferred nuclei of being somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) provided a pioneering step in stem cell research. (asu.edu)
  • According to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the standard American source on stem cell research, three characteristics of stem cells differentiate them from other cell types: (1) they are unspecialized cells that (2) divide for long periods, renewing themselves and (3) can give rise to specialized cells, such as muscle and skin cells, under particular physiological and experimental conditions. (asu.edu)
  • In cattle, when individual cells from 4- and 8-cell embryos and implanted in different foster mothers, they can develop normally into calves and this technique has been used routinely within cattle breeding schemes for over 10 years. (chipbennett.net)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic Stem Cells come from the earliest phases of an embryo and they are the stems from which all the other embryonic cells originate (in humans, the post zygotic blastula is harvestable until the end of the first trimester. (emutagen.com)
  • A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the formation of all organs and tissues. (asu.edu)
  • Platt observed that in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), the coordinated migration of neural crest cells in the embryo produced parts of the nervous system, bones, and connective tissues in the head. (asu.edu)
  • Since the first isolation of usable stem cells, tremendous scientific interest has flourished over the potential of stem cell research to improve our understanding of human development and disease and potentially for cell-based therapies to cure a wide range of diseases. (spusa.org)
  • However, since the gold standard stem cells, embryonic stem cells, require the destruction of a human embryo, great controversy has arisen regarding the ethics of stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • In 2006, the landscape of stem cell research changed when the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first announced. (spusa.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are typically derived from embryos that are four to five days old. (spusa.org)
  • Pre-implantation embryos at this stage of development are called blastocysts, hollow microscopic balls of cells. (spusa.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the unique ability to self-replicate indefinitely before creating specialized cells, which is one of the advantages of performing research on them. (spusa.org)
  • At this time researchers are still uncertain of what clinical differences may exist between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, meaning that, at this time, further research on both kinds of stem cells is necessary to fully understand the medical potential of these new discoveries. (spusa.org)
  • One potential application of embryonic stem cells is the creation of new methods for testing drugs. (spusa.org)
  • An important part of this research would be the identification of how and why undifferentiated cells become differentiated. (spusa.org)
  • Although some chimeras do arise naturally, most are produced experimentally, either by mixing cells of very early embryos or by tissue grafting in late embryos or adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two techniques used to form chimeras by mixing embryo cells are aggregation and injection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aggregation chimeras are produced by a technique that involves removing the zonae pellucidae from around 8-16 cell embryos of different strains of mice and pushing the morulae together so that the cells can aggregate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They develop spontaneously from germ cells in the gonads of certain mouse strains, or from cells in early embryos transplanted to ectopic sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embryonal carcinoma cells from several sources, including spontaneous and embryo-derived tumors and cultured lines selected to carry specific mutations or even human chromosomes, have contributed to normal chimeras. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, a separate mass of cells, referred to as the "ventral migratory mass," migrates from the SVZ to the basal forebrain, where it develops into the islands of Calleja. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further differentiate to form four structures: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Xenopus embryos, the blastula is composed of three different regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this is done the cytoplasmic factors effect the nucleus to become a zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • While we understand and respect the sincerely held beliefs of those who oppose this research, we are equally sincere in our belief that the life-and-death medical needs of countless suffering children and adults justifies moving forward with this research," Summers said, referring to the controversy over embryonic stem cell work. (rxpgnews.com)
  • We feel that the development of disease-specific human embryonic stem cell lines from individuals suffering from genetic forms of neurodegenerative disorders will stimulate both basic research and the development of new treatments for devastating brain diseases," Dr. Stephen Minger, of the stem cell biology laboratory at King's College London, said in a release. (bionity.com)
  • Posts in this category pertain to abortion, human cloning, embryonic stem cell research, and other issues pertaining to the advancement of the culture of life and to the respect and protection of the sanctity of life. (chipbennett.net)
  • And one also wonders how Tauer gets from "human embryonic stem cell research" to "reproductive cloning" in this article? (lifeissues.net)
  • The short answer to the question as to how Tauer gets from "human embryonic stem cell research" to "reproductive cloning" is as follows. (lifeissues.net)
  • eggs
  • Scientists in Britain have been granted permission to create human-animal hybrid embryos by injecting human DNA into cows' eggs for stem cell research. (bionity.com)
  • Minger cited the short supply of human eggs left over from in vitro fertilization, which have been used for stem cell research but have to be acquired through surgery on the women. (bionity.com)
  • Specifically, the FDA is discussing the genetic manipulation of human eggs and embryos in order to prevent inherited mitochondrial disease and treat infertility. (pearltrees.com)
  • Thirty hybrid embryos were created and sent to Trans Ova Genetics, which implanted the fertilized eggs in domestic cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Well, it might be prudent at least to consider that in all such cases, an " experimental " human embryo is implanted into a woman's uterus. (lifeissues.net)
  • stem cell lines
  • Melton, in collaboration with Kevin Eggan and Douglas Powers of Boston IVF , has already created 31 stem cell lines using left-over frozen embryos donated by couples who went through in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has distributed those stem cell lines to scientists around the world. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The inner cell mass is extracted from the embryo and cultured in a nutrient rich environment in a Petri dish in order to create stem cell lines. (spusa.org)
  • GMOs
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • stage
  • A wave of methylation then takes place during the implantation stage of the embryo, with CpG islands protected from methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most importantly, they are easily accepted into other embryos in the blastomere stage. (emutagen.com)
  • The nucleus started dividing but it never got to a differentiated stage. (emutagen.com)
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • And "reproductive cloning" means implanting a new human embryo who is a human being into a woman for purposes of reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Wrong, well at least not so for many proponents of destructive and reproductive research involving the early human embryo such as Dr. Tauer. (lifeissues.net)
  • Given that the same article about Lancet notes the reproductive research work of Australian Alan Trouson, Tauer's remarks and persuasions - and past professional work - are not surprising. (lifeissues.net)
  • sperm
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The term is sometimes used to sensationalize research that involves mixing biological materials from humans and other species. (bionity.com)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • If we begin by looking at the technologies that go into the genetic manipulation/creation of new transgenic organisms, we should begin to see how these can be applied to human genomes. (emutagen.com)
  • early
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • The scientists said the hybrid human-bovine embryos could prove useful in pursuing treatments to prevent Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's, as well as spinal cord injuries, diabetes and arthritis. (bionity.com)
  • Cloning
  • The other meaning of human cloning is the creation of human tissues of varying kinds such as skin, bone marrow, organs etc for the purposes of transplantation. (hubpages.com)
  • Restrictions on cloning and stem cell research makes chimera research a more attractive alternative in some researchers' eyes. (bionity.com)
  • The measure specifically bans human cloning, but would permit all federally allowed stem cell research in the state. (chipbennett.net)
  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • however, in primates, these islands are located within the nucleus accumbens, the reward center of the brain, since the olfactory tubercle has practically disappeared in the brains of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • chicks
  • She researched how body and head segments formed in chicks (Gallus gallus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). (asu.edu)
  • genetic
  • Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Until now no one had established these frequencies, probably due to methodological reasons - we detected, with a sensitivity of 100%, mitochondrial DNA mixtures in which minority variants were present with a frequency of only 10% - but also because for a long time the research carried out on heteroplasmy was associated with the study of mitochondrial diseases. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By taking into account the large amount of data presented and the scarce information available up to date, we are convinced that it will open a new perspective in the research of mitochondrial DNA-related diseases, as well as in population studies, and evolutionary and forensic field", concludes research director Maria Pilar Aluja. (medicalxpress.com)
  • sheep
  • It might refer to the creation of new human beings through the technology Ian Wilmut used to create Dolly, the sheep. (hubpages.com)
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • mitochondrial
  • In genetics, paternal mtDNA transmission and paternal mtDNA inheritance refer to the incidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) being passed from a father to his offspring. (pearltrees.com)
  • The present study represents an important advance in the research of the mitochondrial DNA. (medicalxpress.com)