• bacteria
  • Mice with a homozygous deletion of the gene encoding the IL-17RA (IL-17 receptor A) and mice that do not produce IL-22 are susceptible to lung infection by the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Mycoplasm pulmonis ( 15 - 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Given that most staphylococcal infections develop in those already colonized with the organism, it would seem reasonable to speculate that eradicating the colonizing bacteria should reduce the likelihood of infection. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Naturally the cause is bacteria such as staphylococci that are present on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • his deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility for infections with encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci and also increased risk to develop SL. (docplayer.net)
  • It is an infection of the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics, usually caused by beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus bacteria on scratches or otherwise infected areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erysipelas infections can enter the skin through minor trauma, insect bites, dog bites, eczema, athlete's foot, surgical incisions and ulcers and often originate from streptococci bacteria in the subject's own nasal passages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary skin gangrene - this begins as an ulcerating skin lesion surrounded by an inflammatory zone due to invasion of bacteria such as Staph. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Although staph bacteria are usually harmless, when injury or a break in the skin enables the organisms to invade the body and overcome the body's natural defenses, consequences can range from minor discomfort to death. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A localized staph infection is confined to a ring of dead and dying white blood cells and bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficile colitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected left shin in comparison to shin with no sign of symptoms Cellulitis of the leg with foot involvement Cellulitis is caused by a type of bacteria entering the skin, usually by way of a cut, abrasion, or break in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are the most common of these bacteria, which are part of the normal flora of the skin, but normally cause no actual infection while on the skin's outer surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once below the skin, the bacteria can spread rapidly, entering the lymph nodes and the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrotizing fasciitis, also called by the media "flesh-eating bacteria", is an example of a deep-layer infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonization
  • Studies have shown that many infections due to Gram-positive cocci (GPC) are often preceded by a variable period of colonization or carrier status. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Although decolonizing patients with antibiotics or chemical antiseptics could theoretically reduce the incidence of subsequent infections due to GPC, decolonization is not generally or routinely recommended because of several reasons: inconsistent results from efficacy studies, high rate of re-colonization, lack of a standard regimen for decolonization and increasing reports and concerns of selecting resistant mutants. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Although there are several candidates under study, there are currently no vaccines that can effectively prevent colonization or infection associated with MRSA or other GPCs. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Intra-nasal mupirocin has been used alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents in numerous studies to reduce the rate of staphylococcal colonization and infection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Because the most important locus of staphylococcal colonization is the nasal mucosa, application of an antistaphylococcal agent to the nose-and mupirocin (Bactroban ® ) has emerged as the agent of choice-has been investigated intensively. (ahcmedia.com)
  • Although these may appear to produce an improvement, merely from their anti-inflammatory action, in the long term they are working against our best interests as they (a), tend to dry the skin inducing scaling and thus favoring colonization, and (b), they may further impair cell-mediated immunity. (vin.com)
  • To get around the usage annoyance, it is common for health professionals to speak of colonization (rather than infection) when they mean that some of the pathogens are present but that no clinically apparent infection (no disease) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • cutaneous
  • the normal cutaneous flora comprises primarily aerobic, gram-positive cocci and bacilli in densities ranging from about 10 2 organisms/cm 2 on dry skin to 10 7 organisms/cm 2 in moist areas, such as the axilla. (doctorlib.info)
  • Cutaneous infections occur when the skin's protective mechanisms fail, especially when trauma, inflammation, maceration from excessive moisture, or other factors disrupt the stratum corneum. (doctorlib.info)
  • Direct inoculation of the spores through breaks in the skin can lead to germination and subsequent invasion of the superficial cutaneous layers. (doctorlib.info)
  • boils
  • Boils can be caused by other skin conditions that cause the person to scratch and damage the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common complications of boils are scarring and infection or abscess of the skin, spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squeezing or cutting boils in the danger triangle of the face can be particularly dangerous if done outside a medical setting, as blood vessels in this area drain into the brain and can carry serious infections there. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyoderma
  • It is believed that staphylococcal pyoderma develops following surface spread from the carrier sites. (vin.com)
  • Some animals with recurrent pyoderma have impaired cell-mediated immunity- where their lymphocytes appear to have an inbuilt defect, or where there are serum immunosuppressive factors present. (vin.com)
  • impetigo
  • Topical treatment with fusidic acid may be considered for a patient with no more than three areas of impetigo or an area of infection of less than 5 cm 2 . (bpac.org.nz)
  • Sometimes the infections are relatively limited (such as a stye, boil, furuncle, or carbuncle), but other times they may spread to other skin areas (causing cellulitis, folliculitis, or impetigo). (wikipedia.org)
  • HIES
  • SPINK5 may present as HIES with skin and hair effects such as trichorrhexis invaginata (bamboo hair). (wikipedia.org)
  • erysipelas
  • Erysipelas is an acute infection typically with a skin rash, usually on any of the legs and toes, face, arms, and fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glomerulonephritis can follow an episode of streptococcal erysipelas or other skin infection, but not rheumatic fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to cellulitis, erysipelas is a bacterial infection involving the more superficial layers of the skin, present with an area of redness with well-defined edges, and more often is associated with a fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • superficial
  • e.g., the infection may be in the nasopharynx, but the rash is found usually on the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium with several strata: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface-one superficial and one deep plexus-which are connected by vertical communicating vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • they are also more likely to have associated skin diseases and multiple lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • That differentiates the condition from other crural skin diseases such as T. cruris. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Every page of this book contains an aspect of syphilis and the footnotes, provides a wealth of detailed information about the differential diagnosis of other skin diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • While illness symptoms resolve in a day or two, the skin may take weeks to return to normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although present on the skin of only 5 - 20% of healthy people, as many as 40% carry it elsewhere, such as in the throat, vagina, or rectum, for varying periods of time, from hours to years, without developing symptoms or becoming ill. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) begins with fever, cough, and other nonspecific symptoms, and is soon followed by purplish, bloody-looking lesions on the skin and mucous membranes. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Staphylococcal blepharitis and Posterior blepharitis or rosacea-associated blepharitis Symptoms Symptoms include a foreign body sensation, matting of the lashes, and burning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other symptoms also include scaling on the trunk and limbs, red patches of skin on parts of the body that bend, fevers, reduced blood protein levels, thick red skin patches, peeling of the skin, itching, corneal ulcers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical, whereas an infection that is active but does not produce noticeable symptoms may be called inapparent, silent, subclinical, or occult. (wikipedia.org)
  • An uncommon complication is thyroid storm in which an event such as an infection results in worsening symptoms such as confusion and a high temperature and often results in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms may include fever, small areas of bleeding into the skin, heart murmur, feeling tired, and low red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • prominent
  • Additionally, facial skin is rough with prominent pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the time patients reach adolescence, they have often exhibit a characteristic facial appearance characterized by a broad nose, fleshy nasal tip, prominent forehead, facial asymmetry, prominent skin pores, and deep set eyes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Adolescents have prominent forehead and chin, broad nose and thickened facial skin with lax joints. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • effectively reduce
  • Several well-designed, placebo-controlled, prospective, double-blinded studies have demonstrated that nasal mupirocin can effectively reduce staphylococcal infections in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and certain other defined populations. (ahcmedia.com)
  • occurs
  • Transmission of these infections occurs from direct contact between people or from exposure to desquamated skin cells present in the environment-arthrospores can survive for months. (doctorlib.info)
  • severity
  • The decision to treat will be determined by several factors, including the extent and severity of infection, the patient's co-morbidities and socioeconomic status (e.g. living environment). (bpac.org.nz)
  • lesion
  • The characteristic skin lesion is an annular scaly patch [see Figure though the clinical appearance varies not only with the site involved but also with the host's immune status and the type of infecting organism. (doctorlib.info)
  • The erythematous skin lesion enlarges rapidly and has a sharply demarcated, raised edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • These usually can help in rapid clearance of the skin lesion. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Skin lesion presents with red macules that begin around the mouth. (drmhijazy.com)
  • secondary
  • There are many reasons for pets to itch: parasites, allergy to flea bites, food allergy, secondary infection and the list goes on. (marvistavet.com)
  • Before doing anything else, it is important to clear up secondary infections. (marvistavet.com)
  • Secondary skin gangrene - this begins following varicella or measles infections. (drmhijazy.com)
  • Primary infection versus secondary infection A primary infection is infection that is, or can practically be viewed as, the root cause of the current health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a secondary infection is a sequela or complication of a root cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, pulmonary tuberculosis is often a primary infection, but an infection that happened only because a burn or penetrating trauma (the root cause) allowed unusual access to deep tissues is a secondary infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Staphylococcus blood stream infections are frequently acquired in a health care setting where they can enter the blood stream through procedures that cause break in the integrity of skin like surgery, catheterisation or during access of long term indwelling catheters or secondary to intravenous injection of recreational drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • The identification of Th17 cells as a third subset of helper T cells has illuminated the fact that distinct subsets of helper T cells have been evolved to protect our body from infections by various types of microorganisms and are involved differently in the induction and exacerbation of various immunological disorders. (rupress.org)
  • Viridans Alpha-hemolytic streptococci, that are present in the mouth are the most frequently isolated microorganisms when the infection is acquired in a community setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The clinical manifestations of DOCK8 immunodefiency include recurrent infections, allergies, and malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a diagnosis is made, treatment is based on an individual's clinical condition and may include medication and other strategies for managing infections, allergies, and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some controversy in the literature regarding the efficacy of anti-staphylococcal treatments in improving AD in patients without active clinical infection as one review noted limited benefit while another study showed that dilute bleach baths improved AD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diagnosis of many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data. (wikipedia.org)
  • scalp
  • Infection of the scalp, for example, is primarily a disease of children. (doctorlib.info)
  • The most common cause of scalp infection in the United States, for example, is T. tonsurans , but in Southeast Asia and the Middle East, it is T. violaceum . (doctorlib.info)
  • These infections include tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corporis (body), tinea barbae (beard area of men), tinea faciei (face), tinea cruris (groin), tinea pedis (feet), tinea unguium (nails), and tinea manuum (hands). (doctorlib.info)
  • include
  • Other agents that are less frequently used for decolonization and prevention of staphylococcal infections include hexachlorophene, triclosan, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), clindamycin and minocycline/doxycycline. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Infective endocarditis (IE) is defined as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart (see the image below), which may include one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. (medscape.com)
  • fungi
  • Dermatophytes are fungi (molds) that can infect the skin, hair, and nails. (doctorlib.info)
  • Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. (cloudfront.net)
  • Fungi represent a major threat to human health accounting collectively for more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. (cloudfront.net)