Loading...



  • gene
  • Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene conversion between duplicated copies in a gene family basically homogenizes genetic variation within the family, so that copy members in the family can maintain high levels of sequence homology long-term (referred to as concerted evolution). (mdpi.com)
  • KplE1, HK620 and numerous (pro)phages that integrate at the same site in enterobacteria genomes (such as the argW tRNA gene) all share a highly conserved recombination module. (mdpi.com)
  • Allelic gene conversion occurs during meiosis when homologous recombination between heterozygotic sites results in a mismatch in base pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination also occurs between homologous sequences present at different genomic loci (paralogous sequences) which have resulted from previous gene duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene conversion may also occur during recombinational repair involving a DHJ, and this gene conversion may be associated with physical recombination of the DNA duplexes on the two sides of the DHJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is the process by which the GC content of DNA increases due to gene conversion during recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in Mus musculus, it has recently translocated such that the 3' end of the gene overlaps with the PAR region of the X-chromosome, which is known to be a recombination hotspot. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • This thesis focuses on determining the function of Orf in phage and bacterial recombination pathways by analysing its impact on recombinases encoded by λ and E. coli. (bl.uk)
  • Experiments revealed that Orf interacts with bacterial and phage recombination proteins in the initial exchange step of recombination, modulating the activities of both Exo and RecA. (bl.uk)
  • Significantly, this would direct recombination down the bacterial RecA pathway of break restoration rather than the phage Red pathway with potentially important consequences for the outcome of the exchange reaction. (bl.uk)
  • New work from a multidisciplinary team of scientists used massive DNA sequencing of bacterial populations that grow in the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park to determine their genetic diversity and explore the underlying evolutionary dynamics. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis evolved from bacterial transformation, with the function of propagating genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bacterial+recombination http://www.biology-pages.info/A/Avery.html. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.slideshare.net/babahiremath/bacterial-recombination-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • After moving to the UK in 1985, West continued his work in bacterial systems, and set about trying to identify cellular proteins capable of resolving recombination intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fox's primary achievement in the early part of his career was to turn bacterial transformation into an experimental model for genetic analysis that was to provide key insights into the mechanisms of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • linkage
  • One implication of these findings is that at any one moment there will be linked genetic variants, exposed simultaneously to selection in the genome, and therefore selection will be sub-optimal due to the linkage cost. (eurekalert.org)
  • If linkage cost exists, wherever recombination is low there will be a greater density of selective variants that do not segregate freely, lowering the efficiency of the selection and therefore the adaptation rate. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results showed a very positive correlation between recombination and adaptation, corroborating the existence of the linkage cost in the genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The existence of this threshold has two important consequences: (1) the linkage cost disappears beyond a recombination value, or in other words, the selected mutations act as if in practice they segregated independently. (eurekalert.org)
  • We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. (cdc.gov)
  • For fixed set of genetic and environmental conditions, recombination in a particular region of a linkage structure (chromosome) tends to be constant and the same is then true for the crossing-over value which is used in the production of genetic maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic Linkage is the tendency of alleles, which are located closely together on a chromosome, to be inherited together during the process of meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These probabilities of recombination can be used to construct a linkage map, or a graphical representation of the location of genes and gene in respect to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • If linkage is complete, there should be no recombination events that separate the two alleles, and therefore only parental combinations of alleles should be observed in offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click Here for a video tutorial explaining genetic recombnation) One powerful tool for interpreting and graphing linkage data sets is called Hierarchical Clustering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click Here for an interactive Hierarchical Clustering Demo) The idea of genetic linkage was first discovered by the British geneticists William Bateson, Edith Rebecca Saunders and Reginald Punnett. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • There's a bit of a mystery being solved now about how certain molecular, biological, and genome phenomena have evolved in response to selfish genetic elements," says Daven Presgraves, a dean's professor of biology at the University of Rochester. (rochester.edu)
  • Selfish DNA sequences known as transposons-repetitive genetic elements that do not seem to have benefits to their hosts-are distributed throughout the genome. (rochester.edu)
  • The groups of Lars Steinmetz at EMBL and Wolfgang Huber at EMBL-EBI have produced the most detailed map to date of recombination events in the yeast genome. (phys.org)
  • This work shows that genetic recombination facilitates adaptation and it estimates the evolutionary cost of its absence or depletion in a genome for the first time. (eurekalert.org)
  • proteins
  • Phageλ encodes its own recombination system, the Red system, comprising Exo, β and γ proteins. (bl.uk)
  • In addition,λ encodes another recombinase, Orf, which participates in the initial stages of genetic exchange and supplies a frmction equivalent to that of the Escherichia coli RecFOR proteins. (bl.uk)
  • RecA
  • Assembly of a nucleoprotein filament comprising single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and the RecA homolog, Rad51, is a key step necessary for homology search during recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • Genetic recombination, the process by which sexually reproducing organisms shuffle their genetic material when producing germ cells, leads to offspring with a new genetic make-up and influences the course of evolution. (phys.org)
  • In order to generate germ cells, sexually reproducing organisms undergo a complex series of cell divisions (meiosis) that includes the shuffling of genetic material inherited from the two parents. (phys.org)
  • pathways
  • The identification of GEN1 was the culmination of 18 years of research, and opened up the field to allow a genetic analysis of the pathways by which recombination intermediates are processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • crossovers
  • The recombination rate varied according to location, with events concentrated at so-called hotspots, some of which favoured either crossovers or non-crossovers. (phys.org)
  • genomic
  • The first objective of the study was to determine whether the regions with a greater recombination rate experienced a higher genomic adaptation rate. (eurekalert.org)
  • This asymptote indicates that there is a threshold recombination value beyond which genomic adaptation reaches a maximum. (eurekalert.org)
  • and reasons for emergence of virulent subtypes are poorly understood because of availability of only limited genomic sequence data and lack of robust cultivation systems and genetic manipulation tools ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • sexually reproduci
  • It also allows sexually reproducing organisms to avoid Muller's ratchet, in which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate genetic deletions in an irreversible manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses
  • We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. (cdc.gov)
  • frequency
  • Later experiments with E. coli strains that mated at a high frequency, which were called Hfr (high frequency of recombinants), revealed how genetic markers were transferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The bacteriophage λ Red homologous recombination system has been studied over the past 50 years as a model system to define the mechanistic details of how organisms exchange DNA segments that share extended regions of homology. (asmscience.org)
  • V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of site-specific genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In analogy with fertilization and meiosis of higher organisms, he proposed that all of the genetic material was transferred but that breakage of the donor chromosome occurred at specific locations so that segments of the donor chromosome could be deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • If the two DNA molecules are exactly identical, you would not be able to determine that recombination occurred by genetic approaches because the substrates and products would have the same genotype. (sdsu.edu)
  • organism
  • Our map has the highest resolution of recombination events that currently exists for any organism. (phys.org)
  • N. crassa is used as a model organism because it is easy to grow and has a haploid life cycle that makes genetic analysis simple since recessive traits will show up in the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • This experiment illustrates the concepts of genetic inheritance in a haploid organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the basis for Mendelian inheritance which characterizes inheritance patterns of genetic material from an organism to its offspring parent developmental cell at the given time and area. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In 1947, Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum discovered that nutritional mutants of the bacterium E. coli, when incubated in mixed cultures, exchanged genetic markers to generate new recombinants, although the mating efficiency was inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene conversion between duplicated copies in a gene family basically homogenizes genetic variation within the family, so that copy members in the family can maintain high levels of sequence homology long-term (referred to as concerted evolution). (mdpi.com)
  • KplE1, HK620 and numerous (pro)phages that integrate at the same site in enterobacteria genomes (such as the argW tRNA gene) all share a highly conserved recombination module. (mdpi.com)
  • Allelic gene conversion occurs during meiosis when homologous recombination between heterozygotic sites results in a mismatch in base pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination also occurs between homologous sequences present at different genomic loci (paralogous sequences) which have resulted from previous gene duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene conversion may also occur during recombinational repair involving a DHJ, and this gene conversion may be associated with physical recombination of the DNA duplexes on the two sides of the DHJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is the process by which the GC content of DNA increases due to gene conversion during recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in Mus musculus, it has recently translocated such that the 3' end of the gene overlaps with the PAR region of the X-chromosome, which is known to be a recombination hotspot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rad51
  • The genes that currently have evidence to be associated with CMM disorder include DCC (deleted in colorectal carcinoma), DNAL4 (dynein axonemal light chain 4), and RAD51 (recombination protein A). DCC encodes a receptor for NTN1 (netrin-1), a protein thought to be responsible for axon guidance and neuronal cell migration during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • However, most researchers suggest that it follows an autosomal dominant genetic inheritance pattern in which mutations in certain genes give rise to structural abnormalities in nervous system networks responsible for voluntary skeletal muscle movement, which, in turn, result in the functional movement abnormalities seen in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 4.7 million nucleotides in length and ~300 genes the locus had resisted the effects of recombination, either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire haplotype, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The micronucleus passes its genetic material to offspring, but does not express its genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Recently published in the journal Aging, the study led by Kristoffer Valerie, Ph.D., discovered that certain BRCA1 mutations affecting the BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) binding site resulted in excessive DNA repair, or hyper-recombination, which may contribute to the development of breast and ovarian cancers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By disrupting ubiquitination we may be able to prevent hyper-recombination and stop the growth of cancer cells with these BRCT mutations. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Experiments in mice also support the claim that CMM disorder is associated with genetic mutations in DCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The success of using the D genome ( Aegilops tauschii ) derived user friendly genetic stocks (synthetic wheats, SH or SHW) speaks the potential of pre-breeding technology. (krishisewa.com)
  • The remaining recombination sites are located in intron regions of the genome. (taconic.com)
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Ubiquitin is a small protein in all living organisms that "marks" other proteins for degradation or, as more recently discovered, the participation in specific cellular processes such as recombination. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biologically, as a result of junctional recombination, P/N nucleotide editing and somatic hypermutation (for BCR/antibodies) [ 14 ], the protein sequence space of CDR3s is immense and renders the finding of significant overlap between repertoires highly unlikely. (beds.ac.uk)
  • strains
  • Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human. (bris.ac.uk)
  • As genotyping became progressively less expensive and more accurate the main advantage of using recombinant inbred strains and other genetic reference panels shifted to the ability to assemble massive and coherent databases on phenotypes (e.g., the GeneNetwork web service), and to use these coherent open-source data sets for large-scale collaborative research projects in predictive medicine and plant and animal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate extensive genetic and phenotype data for each member of a family of recombinant inbred strains under several different conditions (e.g., baseline environment versus stressful environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers proposed that the hyper-recombination resulting from increased ubiquination of the BASC might result in improperly repaired DNA and increased genomic instability, which could lead to the development and aggressive progression of breast and ovarian cancers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • diversity
  • Crop wild relatives have a high level of genetic diversity with rare alleles that enabled them to survive in natural and adverse environments. (krishisewa.com)
  • The diversity present in the un-adapted gene pool has provided many useful traits now deployed widely in elite germplasm, and expanded use of this germplasm resource is seen as crucial to accelerating the rate of genetic gain in plant breeding. (krishisewa.com)
  • humans
  • Through genetic studies on both laboratory mice and humans, it has been discovered that RAI1 is likely the gene responsible for these syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • One of the major constraints in using wheat genetic resources in breeding programmes is the time factor associated with difficulties in evaluating wheat genetic resources with widely different phenologies of growth habit, flowering time and height. (krishisewa.com)
  • material
  • This preceded the confirmation of DNA as the genetic material in 1952 in related phage T2 by the Hershey-Chase experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • rare
  • Congenital mirror movement disorder (CMM disorder) is a rare genetic neurological disorder which is characterized by mirrored movement, sometimes referred to as associated or synkinetic movement, most often in the upper extremity of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Methylation of histones is important biologically because it is the principal epigenetic modification of chromatin that determines gene expression, genomic stability, stem cell maturation, cell lineage development, genetic imprinting, DNA methylation, and cell mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Valerie and his colleagues showed through experiments with cultured breast cancer cells and tissue samples from breast cancer patients that BRCT mutants increased ubiquination of BASC, which, in turn, increased recombination several-fold over normal levels. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There has been a body of work discussing the view that cancer arises from genetic instability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • often
  • The time required to transfer traits from wheat genetic resources and to enable their use in breeding often may exceed that in conventional breeding programmes. (krishisewa.com)