• ligand
  • These results suggest that GABA, a single ligand, can promote motility via G-protein activation and arrest attractant-induced migration via GABA A receptor-mediated depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • A trophic ligand is a molecule whose protein binding stimulates cell growth, differentiation, and/or survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dependence receptor notion was based on the observation that the effects of a number of receptors that function in both nervous system development and the production of tumors (especially metastasis) cannot be explained simply by a positive effect of signal transduction induced by ligand binding, but rather must also include cell death signaling in response to trophic withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • conversely, in the absence of ligand, the receptors initiate and/or amplify a signal for programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of the caspase site(s) in the receptor, of which there is typically one or two, prevents the trophic ligand withdrawal-induced programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • androgen receptor
  • Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and are immune to the androgenic effects of DHEA and other androgens, have absent or only sparse/scanty pubic and axillary hair and body hair in general, demonstrating the role of DHEA, testosterone, and other androgens in body hair development at both adrenarche and pubarche. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The FGF and NGF receptors are expressed in different tissues of the central nervous system and play a crucial role in the control of signaling processes essential for neuronal development and survival ( 2 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • agonist
  • Though it was found to be a partial agonist of the ERα with a maximal efficacy of 30-70%, the concentrations required for this degree of activation make it unlikely that the activity of DHEA at this receptor is physiologically meaningful. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHEA has been found to directly act on several neurotransmitter receptors, including acting as a positive allosteric modulator of the NMDA receptor, as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, and as an agonist of the σ1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Ayer-LeLievre C, Olson L, Ebendal T, Hallbook F, Persson H (1988a) Nerve growth factor mRNA and protein in the testis and epididymis of mouse and rat. (springer.com)
  • Clegg DO, Large TH, Bodary SC, Reichardt LF (1989) Regulation of nerve growth factor mRNA levels in developing rat heart ventricle is not altered by sympathectomy. (springer.com)
  • Dal Toso R, De Bernardi MA, Brooker G, Costa E, Mocchetti I (1988) Beta adrenergic and prostaglandin receptor activation increases nerve growth factor mRNA content in C6-2B rat astrocytoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of 2-d-old rat ovaries in organ culture with NGF increased FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA within 8 h of exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • specificity
  • A functional model which proposed that NGF was produced by targets of sensory and sympathetic innervation, regulating the specificity of axon growth to the target and the survival of neurons which found the correct target, became dogmatically accepted. (springer.com)
  • sensory neurons
  • Recent research has suggested a number of roles for the LNGFR, including in development of the eyes and sensory neurons, and in repair of muscle and nerve damage in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • P2X 3 receptors of sensory neurons are a major target for the action of several proalgesic substances ( North, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • survival
  • Carmignoto G, Maffei L, Candeo P, Canella R, Comelli C (1989) Effect of NGF on the survival of rat retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve section. (springer.com)
  • Cells depend for their survival on stimulation that is mediated by various receptors and sensors, and integrated via signaling within the cell and between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these receptors may support either cell death or cell survival, they initiate a new type of tumor suppressor, a conditional tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive survival signals involve classical signal transduction, initiated by interactions between ligands and receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative survival signals involve an alternative form of signal transduction that is initiated by the withdrawal of ligands from dependence receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells control their degree of innervation (the number of axon connections) by the secretion of various specific neurotrophic factors that are essential for neuron survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • LNGFR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF receptor)superfamily - indeed, LNGFR was the first member of this large family of receptors to be characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various dependence receptors are involved in a range of biological events: developmental cell death (naturally occurring cell death), trophic factor withdrawal-induced cell death, the spontaneous regression characteristic of type IV-S neuroblastoma, neurodegenerative cell death, inhibition of new tumor cells (tumorigenesis) and metastasis, and therapeutic antibody-mediated tumor cell death, as well as programmed cell death in other instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • The pioneering investigations of Levi-Montalcini and coworkers established that nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important physiological regulator of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Allendoerfer KL, Shelton DL, Shooter EM, Shatz CJ (1990) Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity is transiently associated with the subplate neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • Batchelor PE, Armstrong DM, Blaker SM, Gage FH (1989) Nerve growth factor receptor and choline acetyltransferase colocalization in neurons within the rat forebrain: response to fimbria-fornix transection. (springer.com)
  • Although NGF block is proposed as a novel analgesic approach, its consequences on nociceptive purinergic P2X receptors of trigeminal ganglion neurons remain unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated whether neutralizing NGF might change the function of P2X 3 receptors natively coexpressed with NGF receptors on cultured mouse trigeminal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among pain receptors expressed by neurons responsive to NGF, some of them are powerfully modulated by it such as the ones expressing nociceptive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors ( Wang and Woolf, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • By using TG neurons in vitro , it might be possible to understand whether sustained NGF deprivation affects P2X 3 receptor expression and activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death - thus allowing the neurons to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • It has also been shown, however, that the LNGFR may signal a cell to die via apoptosis - so therefore cells expressing the LNGFR in the absence of Trk receptors may die rather than live in the presence of a neurotrophin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst the Trk receptors have a clearly defined trophic role, p75 receptors activate signalling pathways which can also result in apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Chesa PG, Wolfgang JR, Thomson TM, Old LJ, Melamed MR (1988) Immunohistochemical analysis of nerve growth factor receptor expression in normal and malignant human tissues. (springer.com)
  • One factor that was initially found to influence haptotaxis is serum spreading factor, which is present in blood serum and interstitial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, androgens such as testosterone promote protein synthesis and thus growth of tissues with androgen receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first pharyngeal arch that is necessary for the development of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig Epithelial Root Sheath, which determines the root shape of the tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Aloe L (1988) The effect of nerve growth factor and its antibody on mast cells in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Chandler CE, Parsons LM, Hosang M, Shooter EM (1984) A monoclonal antibody modulates the interaction of nerve growth factor with PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Treatment with an NGF antibody (24 h) decreased P2X 3 receptor-mediated currents and Ca 2+ transients, an effect opposite to exogenously applied NGF. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mouse brain lysates probed with Anti-p75 NGF Receptor Polyclonal Antibody at 1:5000 90min in 37˚C. (antibodies-online.com)
  • HepG2 cells were stained with p75 NGF receptor Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated at 1:500 in PBS and incubated for two hours at 37°C followed by Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Cy3 conjugated secondary antibody. (antibodies-online.com)
  • extracellular
  • A polyclonal antiserum (Ab 9651) directed against the extracellular domain of the p75 NGF receptor was obtained from Dr. Moses V. Chao (Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY) and used for all experiments in a 1:1000 dilution. (jneurosci.org)