• NGFR
  • A series of 22 neuroepithelioma and neuroblastoma cell lines were screened for expression of nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and Northern blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inversely, NGFR ablation activates p53, consequently inducing apoptosis, attenuating survival, and reducing clonogenic capability of cancer cells, as well as sensitizing human cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents that induce p53 and suppressing mouse xenograft tumor growth. (elifesciences.org)
  • androgen receptor
  • Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and are immune to the androgenic effects of DHEA and other androgens, have absent or only sparse/scanty pubic and axillary hair and body hair in general, demonstrating the role of DHEA, testosterone, and other androgens in body hair development at both adrenarche and pubarche. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it functions as an endogenous precursor to more potent androgens such as testosterone and DHT, DHEA has been found to possess some degree of androgenic activity in its own right, acting as a low affinity (Ki = 1 μM), weak partial agonist of the androgen receptor (AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its affinity for the androgen receptor, DHEA has also been found to bind to and activate the ERα and ERβ estrogen receptors with Ki values of 1.1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively, and EC50 values of >1 μM and 200 nM, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • A functional model which proposed that NGF was produced by targets of sensory and sympathetic innervation, regulating the specificity of axon growth to the target and the survival of neurons which found the correct target, became dogmatically accepted. (springer.com)
  • Carmignoto G, Maffei L, Candeo P, Canella R, Comelli C (1989) Effect of NGF on the survival of rat retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve section. (springer.com)
  • Cells depend for their survival on stimulation that is mediated by various receptors and sensors, and integrated via signaling within the cell and between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these receptors may support either cell death or cell survival, they initiate a new type of tumor suppressor, a conditional tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive survival signals involve classical signal transduction, initiated by interactions between ligands and receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative survival signals involve an alternative form of signal transduction that is initiated by the withdrawal of ligands from dependence receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells control their degree of innervation (the number of axon connections) by the secretion of various specific neurotrophic factors that are essential for neuron survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • LNGFR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF receptor)superfamily - indeed, LNGFR was the first member of this large family of receptors to be characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Various dependence receptors are involved in a range of biological events: developmental cell death (naturally occurring cell death), trophic factor withdrawal-induced cell death, the spontaneous regression characteristic of type IV-S neuroblastoma, neurodegenerative cell death, inhibition of new tumor cells (tumorigenesis) and metastasis, and therapeutic antibody-mediated tumor cell death, as well as programmed cell death in other instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Recent research has suggested a number of roles for the LNGFR, including in development of the eyes and sensory neurons, and in repair of muscle and nerve damage in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pioneering investigations of Levi-Montalcini and coworkers established that nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important physiological regulator of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Allendoerfer KL, Shelton DL, Shooter EM, Shatz CJ (1990) Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity is transiently associated with the subplate neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • Batchelor PE, Armstrong DM, Blaker SM, Gage FH (1989) Nerve growth factor receptor and choline acetyltransferase colocalization in neurons within the rat forebrain: response to fimbria-fornix transection. (springer.com)
  • Although NGF block is proposed as a novel analgesic approach, its consequences on nociceptive purinergic P2X receptors of trigeminal ganglion neurons remain unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated whether neutralizing NGF might change the function of P2X 3 receptors natively coexpressed with NGF receptors on cultured mouse trigeminal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among pain receptors expressed by neurons responsive to NGF, some of them are powerfully modulated by it such as the ones expressing nociceptive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors ( Wang and Woolf, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • P2X 3 receptors of sensory neurons are a major target for the action of several proalgesic substances ( North, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • By using TG neurons in vitro , it might be possible to understand whether sustained NGF deprivation affects P2X 3 receptor expression and activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death - thus allowing the neurons to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • It has also been shown, however, that the LNGFR may signal a cell to die via apoptosis - so therefore cells expressing the LNGFR in the absence of Trk receptors may die rather than live in the presence of a neurotrophin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst the Trk receptors have a clearly defined trophic role, p75 receptors activate signalling pathways which can also result in apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The dependence receptor notion was based on the observation that the effects of a number of receptors that function in both nervous system development and the production of tumors (especially metastasis) cannot be explained simply by a positive effect of signal transduction induced by ligand binding, but rather must also include cell death signaling in response to trophic withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • conversely, in the absence of ligand, the receptors initiate and/or amplify a signal for programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation of the caspase site(s) in the receptor, of which there is typically one or two, prevents the trophic ligand withdrawal-induced programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Chesa PG, Wolfgang JR, Thomson TM, Old LJ, Melamed MR (1988) Immunohistochemical analysis of nerve growth factor receptor expression in normal and malignant human tissues. (springer.com)
  • Most of the current knowledge about neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders focuses on studies of postmortem nerve tissues, spinal cords, and brains or cancer tissue (e.g., neuroblastoma). (hindawi.com)
  • One factor that was initially found to influence haptotaxis is serum spreading factor, which is present in blood serum and interstitial tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first pharyngeal arch that is necessary for the development of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig Epithelial Root Sheath, which determines the root shape of the tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular domain
  • A polyclonal antiserum (Ab 9651) directed against the extracellular domain of the p75 NGF receptor was obtained from Dr. Moses V. Chao (Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY) and used for all experiments in a 1:1000 dilution. (jneurosci.org)
  • cholinergic
  • On the other hand, the selective destruction of cholinergic afferents to the visual cortex caused a dramatic, but not complete, reduction of the cortical NGFRs, which suggests that these receptors are located on cholinergic terminals predominantly. (jneurosci.org)
  • antibody
  • Aloe L (1988) The effect of nerve growth factor and its antibody on mast cells in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Chandler CE, Parsons LM, Hosang M, Shooter EM (1984) A monoclonal antibody modulates the interaction of nerve growth factor with PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Treatment with an NGF antibody (24 h) decreased P2X 3 receptor-mediated currents and Ca 2+ transients, an effect opposite to exogenously applied NGF. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mouse brain lysates probed with Anti-p75 NGF Receptor Polyclonal Antibody at 1:5000 90min in 37˚C. (antibodies-online.com)
  • HepG2 cells were stained with p75 NGF receptor Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated at 1:500 in PBS and incubated for two hours at 37°C followed by Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Cy3 conjugated secondary antibody. (antibodies-online.com)
  • absence
  • In the absence of NGF, the growth of primordial follicles is retarded, indicating that NGF contributes to facilitating early follicular development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is a relationship between tooth agenesis and absence of the peripheral trigeminal nerve (see Hypodontia). (wikipedia.org)
  • DHEA
  • DHEA and other adrenal androgens such as androstenedione, although relatively weak androgens, are responsible for the androgenic effects of adrenarche, such as early pubic and axillary hair growth, adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of hair and skin, and mild acne. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHEA and DHEA-S bound to these receptors with affinities that were in the low nanomolar range (around 5 nM), although the affinities were nonetheless approximately two orders of magnitude lower relative to highly potent polypeptide neurotrophins like NGF (0.01-0.1 nM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to other conjugated steroids, DHEA-S is devoid of hormonal activity, lacking affinity for the steroid hormone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction
  • In addition, events such as cellular atrophy and process retraction may also be mediated by dependence receptors, although this has not been as well documented as the induction of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • However, its intrinsic activity at the receptor is quite weak, and on account of that, due to competition for binding with full agonists like testosterone, it can actually behave more like an antagonist depending on circulating testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels, and hence, like an antiandrogen. (wikipedia.org)