• gamma-amin
  • The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three receptors of the gamma-aminobutyric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enrichment analyses revealed that GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) SNPs were over-represented among SNPs associated at po0.05 in both the discovery (Z = 3.64, p = 0.0003) and combined cohorts (Z = 2.07, p = 0.0388). (epfl.ch)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (TC 1.A.9.5) subfamily. (abcam.com)
  • B-type receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) inhibit neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems, which regulate the release of neurotransmitters and the activity of ion channels and adenylyl cyclase. (genetex.com)
  • One theory is that it acts as a non-competitive channel blocker for GABAA receptor chloride channels, specifically the gamma-aminobutyric acid-activated chloride ionophore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory impairment due to alcohol has been linked to disruption of hippocampal function-in particular affecting gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission which negatively impacts long-term potentiation (LTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRR2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • However, the excitatory GABA theory has been questioned as potentially being an artefact of experimental conditions, with most data acquired in in-vitro brain slice experiments susceptible to un-physiological milieu such as deficient energy metabolism and neuronal damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The controversy arose when a number of studies have shown that GABA in neonatal brain slices becomes inhibitory if glucose in perfusate is supplemented with ketone bodies, pyruvate, or lactate, or that the excitatory GABA was an artefact of neuronal damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol is believed to mimic GABA's effect in the brain, binding to GABA receptors and inhibiting neuronal signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-synaptic GABA-B-R inhibit neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA-B-R decrease neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. (abcam.com)
  • Upon activation, these GABA receptors conduct Cl-, resulting in neuronal hyperpolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAA receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and so when muscimol is administered, it alters neuronal activity in multiple regions including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • 1995). GABA receptors are also located post-synaptically and when activated hyperpolarize the neuron thus decreasing the effectiveness of excitatory input (Malcangio and Bowery, 1996). (chiro.org)
  • pharmacology
  • An insect ionotropic Drosophila melanogaster GABAR subunit, RDL (Resistant to Dieldrin), can be heterologously expressed to form functional homo-oligomeric receptors, the pharmacology of which closely resembles that of the majority of native insect GABARs and so has proved to be of value in investigating GABAR physiology and pharmacology. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glutamate and GABA Receptors and Transporters: Structure, Function and Pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • barbiturates
  • Because it inhibits channels activated by GABA, GABA-enhancing drugs like barbiturates and benzodiazepines can be used as an antidote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscimol binds to the same site on the GABAA receptor complex as GABA itself, as opposed to other GABAergic drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines which bind to separate regulatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor-Driven Behavioral Kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine which spinal neurotransmitter receptors mediate manipulation-induced antihyperalgesia. (chiro.org)
  • Alpha-helical parts of the C-terminal intracellular region mediate heterodimeric interaction with GABA-B receptor 2. (abcam.com)
  • inhibit adenylyl cyclase
  • The GABAreceptor belongs to the class of G-Protein coupled receptors that inhibit adenylyl cyclase, therefore leading to decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis. (abcam.com)
  • excitatory
  • There have been numerous reports of excitatory GABAA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the excitatory GABA theory, this phenomenon is due to increased intracellular concentration of Cl¯ ions either during development of the nervous system or in certain cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies from originators and proponents of the excitatory GABA theory have questioned these results, but the truth remained elusive until the real effects of GABA could be reliably elucidated in intact living brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • Furthermore, acute alcohol intake promotes GABAergic neurotransmission via presynaptic release of GABA, dephosphorylation of GABAA receptors (increasing GABA sensitivity), and elevation of endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, we show how these GABA receptors modulate the time course of innate behavioral responses after odor pulse termination, demonstrating an important role for temporal contrast enhancement in odor-guided navigation. (nih.gov)
  • presynaptic
  • Presynaptic inhibition can occur through activation of spinal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on primary afferent fibers, which depolarize the terminal thus inhibiting neurotransmitter release from primary afferents and the consequent incoming afferent activity (see Eccles et al. (chiro.org)
  • Both pathways involve endocannabinoids retrogradely acting on type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) at presynaptic terminals. (jneurosci.org)
  • NMDA
  • HQA has also been found to label a novel, yet uncharacterized binding site, which can be distinguished from the NMDA receptor with the use of 2-carboxy-3-carboxymethylquinoline (CCMQ), a selective ligand of the uncharacterized site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, stroke, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (although further associations are being explored), injury of the spinal cord, and many other forms of brain injury can cause onset of PSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Interest in RDL as a model ligandgated anion channel has been enhanced by the recent discovery of pre-mRNA A-to-I editing, which, together with alternative splicing, adds to the functional diversity of this GABA receptor subunit. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Isoform 1E function may be to regulate the availability of functional GABA-B-R1A/GABA-B-R2 heterodimers by competing for GABA-B-R2 dimerization. (abcam.com)
  • picrotoxin
  • A study by Newland and Cull-Candy found that, in high enough concentrations, picrotoxin reduced the amplitude of GABA currents. (wikipedia.org)