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  • molecules
  • They act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 , 9 , 10 In this method, the target molecules on the cell surfaces can be detected by the emission intensity and/or lifetime. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Typically, the molecules of interest on the cell surface are conjugated by molecule imaging agents, which consist of organic fluorophore moieties and targeting functionalities (e.g., antibodies, peptides, or special ligands, through immunoreactions). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • KSHV entry is a complex multistep process involving viral envelope glycoproteins and several cell surface molecules that is utilized by KSHV for its attachment and entry. (mdpi.com)
  • KSHV utilizes heparan sulfate, integrins and EphrinA2 molecules as receptors which results in the activation of host cell pre-existing signal pathways that facilitate the subsequent cascade of events resulting in the rapid entry of virus particles, trafficking towards the nucleus followed by viral and host gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • HOUSTON Colon cancer researchers are studying a variety of cell surface molecules and receptors as potential targets for new treatments aimed particularly at preventing or treating metastatic disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Interestingly, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, monocytes, or polymorphonuclear cells as well as complement-dependent cytotoxicity positively correlated with the number of EGFR molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signalling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 activation results in pyroptosis, a form of lytic cell death that releases inflammatory molecules such as ATP, HMGB1 and IL-1α from the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • Combined fat accumulation and formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) activate TLR2 receptor through the binding of oxLDL to CD36, and triggers the disproportional recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages causing the inflammation. (mitacs.ca)
  • The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit, an animal with familial hypercholesterolemia, produces a mutant receptor for plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that is not transported to the cell surface at a normal rate. (sciencemag.org)
  • mediate
  • GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) are pentameric hetero-oligomers that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate how RAGE-PR3 interactions between human prostate cancer cells and the bone marrow microenvironment mediate bone metastasis during prostate cancer progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow niche ( 2 ), it has been proposed that specific cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions might mediate tumor cell trafficking to the axial skeletal microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biophys
  • Udgaonkar, J.A. and Hess, G.P., Acetylcholine receptor: Channel-opening kinetics evaluated by rapid chemical kinetic and single-channel current measurements, Biophys. (springer.com)
  • inhibitory
  • The efficacy of fast synaptic inhibition is critically dependent on the accumulation of GABA A receptors at inhibitory synapses, a process that remains poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that synaptic GABA A receptors have lower levels of lateral mobility compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts, and suggest a specific role for gephyrin in reducing the diffusion of GABA A receptors, facilitating their accumulation at inhibitory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results reveal that synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA A Rs exhibit distinct cell surface dynamics and that gephyrin plays a critical role in reducing the mobility of GABA A R clusters, thereby promoting the formation of postsynaptic inhibitory specializations. (jneurosci.org)
  • T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) are important for mediating slow inhibition in the central nervous system and the kinetics of their internalisation and lateral mobility will be a major determinant of their signalling efficacy. (bl.uk)
  • In conclusion, this study provides new and important insight into the mobility of cell surface GABABRs and the underlying mechanisms that ensure they provide efficacious slow synaptic inhibition. (bl.uk)
  • TIM-3 is mainly expressed on activated CD8+ T cells and suppresses macrophage activation following PD-1 inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • Serotonin is involved in basal and stress-induced regulation of hypothalamus and pituitary gland hormones such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin and oxytocin, mainly via actions of receptor subtypes 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Since the discovery of KSHV in 1994, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of KSHV entry into its in vitro target cells. (mdpi.com)
  • PR3 bound to RAGE on the surface of prostate cancer cells in vitro , inducing tumor cell motility through a nonproteolytic signal transduction cascade involving activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • interaction
  • A mechanism driven approach for specific interaction and uptake of nanoparticles by senescent cells has thus become a challenging necessity. (fightaging.org)
  • In this study, we establish that RAGE-PR3 interaction mediates homing of prostate cancer cells to the bone marrow. (aacrjournals.org)
  • effective hormone-receptor interaction requires solely the 34-N-terminal amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agonist
  • Agonist binding to a receptor can be characterized both in terms of how much physiological response can be triggered and in terms of the concentration of the agonist that is required to produce the physiological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one of the agonists shown can maximally stimulate the receptor and, thus, can be defined as a full agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example, the concentration at which the full agonist (red curve) can half-maximally activate the receptor is about 5 x 10−9 Molar (nM = nanomolar). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the evidence for a role of 5-HT2C receptor stimulation in depressive symptoms there also is evidence that activation of 5-HT2C receptors may have beneficial effects upon certain aspects of depression, one group of researchers found that direct stimulation of 5-HT2C receptors with a 5-HT2C agonist reduced cognitive deficits in mice with a TPH2 loss-of-function mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Recent work led us to hypothesize that this tropism may reflect pathogenic interactions between RAGE, a cell surface receptor expressed on malignant cells in advanced prostate cancer, and proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease present in inflammatory neutrophils and hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, candidate protein interactions that promote osteoblastic proliferation of tumor and stromal cells have been identified ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Understanding functional interactions between cancer cells and nonmalignant cells within the bone marrow is central for developing target therapeutics for lethal metastatic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • initiate
  • Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. (diva-portal.org)
  • accumulation
  • In addition, progressive inability of the immune system to destroy senescent cells during aging results in the accumulation of "death-resistant" cells that accelerate aging and disease development by altering neighboring cell behavior, lowering the pool of mitotic-competent cells , degrading the cellular matrix , and stimulating cancer. (fightaging.org)
  • scaffold
  • Surprisingly, it has recently been shown that LPS activates caspase-11 not through a receptor/scaffold mediator, but through direct LPS binding to the caspase-11 CARD domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGFR
  • A clinical study in non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a positive correlation between EGFR expression levels and the therapeutic efficacy of the EGFR mAb cetuximab. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, BHK-21 cells were stably transfected to express different EGFR levels, which were quantified by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and compared with EGFR levels of clinical non-small cell lung cancer samples. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells were used to systematically investigate the impact of target Ag expression levels on Fab- or Fc-mediated MoAs of EGFR mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • In comparison with ADCC by mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cell-mediated ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity required higher EGFR expression levels and higher mAb concentrations to trigger significant tumor cell killing. (jimmunol.org)
  • This correlation between EGFR expression levels and Fc-mediated MoA was confirmed in an independent panel of human tumor cell lines carrying diverse genetic alterations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments reinforced the impact of EGFR expression on tumor cell killing by EGFR mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • lateral
  • Finally, the lateral surface mobility of GABABRs was studied by extending the BBS-tagging method to single-particle tracking using quantum dots. (bl.uk)
  • Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), our studies show that synaptic receptors have lower FRAP rates compared with extrasynaptic GABA A Rs, strongly suggesting lower rates of lateral mobility for synaptic receptors compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts under control conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5-HT2C receptors are located mainly in the choroid plexus, and in rats is also found in many other brain regions in high concentrations, including parts of the hippocampus, anterior olfactory nucleus, substantia nigra, several brainstem nuclei, amygdala, subthalamic nucleus and lateral habenula. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • As ever more researchers turn their attention to cellular senescence as a cause of aging and age-related disease, more potential approaches to selectively targeting these unwanted cells are emerging. (fightaging.org)
  • The present approaches to destroying senescent cells, those under active development and heading towards the clinic, don't even try to deliver their therapeutic agents selectively to senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • Therefore, individual components of the signal cascades might be used selectively during transit from the outer cell surface to the interior of the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • proteases
  • Senescent cells are characterized by a flattened shape, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and hypersecretion of cytokines , chemokines , and proteases , the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) . (fightaging.org)
  • gene
  • HTR2C denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor, that in humans is located at the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • As males have one copy of the gene and in females one of the two copies of the gene is repressed, polymorphisms at this receptor can affect the two sexes to differing extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine therapy has been shown to increase 5-HT2C gene expression, resulting in increased activity of 5-HT2C receptors in the brain[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemerin, also known as retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), tazarotene-induced gene 2 protein (TIG2), or RAR-responsive protein TIG2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RARRES2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • Cloning and sequencing of complementary DNA's from normal and WHHL rabbits, shows that this defect arises from an in-frame deletion of 12 nucleotides that eliminates four amino acids from the cysteine-rich ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • The docking of IP3 to its receptor, which is called the inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R), was first studied using deletion mutagenesis in the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Synthesis and photochemistry of a new class of o-nitrobenzyl derivatives and their effects on receptor function, Biochemistry 25: 1799 (1986). (springer.com)
  • vivo
  • Dr. Ellis's group created an in-vivo model of this situation by transfecting Ang-1 or Ang-2 into human colon cancer cell lines. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 5-HT2C receptors exhibit constitutive activity in vivo, and may retain the ability to influence neurotransmission in the absence of ligand occupancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, and in vivo studies in mice showed chemerin stimulates the phosphorylation of the MAPKs, ERK1, and ERK2, which are involved in mediating lipolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • HAVCR2 expression is up regulated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in lung, gastric, head and neck cancer, schwannoma, melanoma and follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutrophils
  • In additionwe show that AGP?bound hydroxyeicasotetraenoic acids (HETEs) induce increasesin [Ca2+]i in neutrophils through binding to the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT2. (openthesis.org)
  • immune system
  • Toxic shock and sepsis may occur if too many host cells undergo pyroptosis, owing to either overstimulation of the immune system by the released cytoplasmic contents or to host cell depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Hess, G.P. and Udgaonkar, J.B., Chemical kinetic measurements of transmembrane processes using rapid reaction techniques: Acetylcholine receptor, Ann. (springer.com)
  • proteins
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • It can be activated by collectin proteins which recognize the structural pattern of polysaccharide on the surface of microorganisms. (scirp.org)
  • It is used for finding new ligands (enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists) to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of these synapses has been shown to involve reorientation of the cytoskeleton, which is triggered by engagement of ICAM-1 on the infected cell's surface and expression of several viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipilimumab patients expressed increased ICOS+ T cells in tumor tissues and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent study proposes that the fundamental "killing units" of CD4 T cells leading to CD4 T-cell depletion and ultimately progression to AIDS are infected cells residing in lymphoid tissues that mediate cell-to-cell spread of the virus via virological synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast-like synoviocytes that are present in the synovium during rheumatoid artritis display altered phenotype compared to the cells present in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a crucial role in excitable cells such as neuronal and muscle tissues, allowing a rapid and co-ordinated depolarization in response to triggering voltage change. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Current methods used to measure the activity of antibody and other biologics drugs designed to target immune checkpoint receptors rely on primary human cells and measurement of functional endpoints such as cell proliferation, cell surface marker expression, and cytokine production. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In terms of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion, ICOS-/- CD4+ T cell activated in vitro reduced IL-4 secretion, while maintaining similar IFN-g secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Phagocytosis is a complex physiological process involving the engulfment and internalization of material bearing appropriate surface molecules. (asmscience.org)
  • Unlike other DCs and macrophages, FDCs lack MHC class II antigen molecules and express few pattern-recognition receptors, so they have little ability to capture non-opsonized antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, these cells can produce a number of pro-inflammatory signalling molecules, especially Il-6 and IL-8, prostanoids and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which may directly affect other cells and also participate in the inflammation enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Follicular DCs are a non-migratory population found in primary and secondary follicles of the B cell areas of lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal lymphoid tissue recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells are intercepted and undergo clonal expansion within the FDC networks, generating germinal centers (GC). (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transient
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion route within the peripheral and central nervous systems. (biomasswars.com)
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • antigen
  • Two-dimensional dot plots illustrating the separation of monocytes and granulocytes (and lymphocytes) by their inherent light-scattering properties (forward-angle light scatter versus right-angle light scatter) (left) or the combination of a light-scattering property (right-angle light scatter) and a specific lineage-defining surface antigen (CD14-PE)(right). (asmscience.org)
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the formation of GC, where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic mutation, positive and negative selection, isotype switching, and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, whereas B cells bound to FDCs through the antigen complex, survive due to apoptosis blockage caused by interaction with FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opening and closing of the channels are triggered by changing ion concentration, and hence charge gradient, between the sides of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the four central α-subunits, there are also regulatory β-subunits, with oxidoreductase activity, which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α-subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This movement of ions down their concentration gradients subsequently generates an electric current sufficient to depolarize the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon depolarization, the positively-charged residues on the S4 domains move toward the exoplasmic surface of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • tumor cells
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • embryonic
  • In vitro model systems, based on the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, provide an alternative means of identifying and characterizing these populations. (biologists.org)
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • GO annotations related to this gene include interleukin-17 receptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • 1989. Leucocyte Typing IV: White Cell Differentiation Antigens. (tonbobio.com)
  • This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. (jove.com)
  • The ability to form, recognize and manipulate the differentiation of definitive ectoderm is crucial to understanding the determination of cell fate in the ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • lineages
  • In lower vertebrates, the formation of ectoderm proceeds via a bipotent intermediate, definitive ectoderm, which differentiates to form the two major ectodermal lineages: surface ectoderm and neurectoderm ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • With the implicit understanding that monocytes and granulocytes represent distinct cell lineages, this chapter reviews laboratory procedures which can be utilized to assess their functions and phenotypes. (asmscience.org)
  • progenitor
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In Xenopus laevis , BMP4 has been shown to suppress neural tissue and induce surface ectoderm from the definitive ectoderm ( Wilson and Hemmati-Brivanlou, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of T:B cell interactions by the inducible costimulator molecule: does ICOS "induce" disease? (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Although medical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are accustomed to treat breast tumors, regular cells tolerance, development of metastases, and natural tumor resistance to radiation or chemotherapy can hinder an effective outcome. (biomasswars.com)
  • apoptosis
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The inner layer is mainly composed of two cell types, specialized macrophages (macrophage-like synovial cells) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which are important in maintaining the internal joint homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • molecular
  • The groups have access to state-of-the-art equipment in the domains of molecular, and cell biology (e.g., two-photon confocal microscope, laser scanning cytometer, FACS, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, real time PCR, a tissue culture laboratory) as well as electrophysiology and behaviour, and a recently modernized animal house. (eni-net.org)
  • behavior
  • Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. (jove.com)
  • Signal
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon type III: Signal through a receptor complex consisting of IL10R2 (also called CRF2-4) and IFNLR1 (also called CRF2-12). (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • By secreting the bridging factor MFGE8, which crosslinks apoptotic cells and phagocytes, FDCs promote selective debris removal from the GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the changes in proliferative and apoptotic processes the total number of cells increases in the synovium, and significantly increases also the number of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Research has shown that CD34+ cells are relatively more in men than in women in the reproductive age among Spinal Cord Injury victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This, in turn, is likely to influence the expression of nearby or more remotely located genes to alter beta cell function. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Right) For the same tube, the same populations were visualized on the basis of right-angle light scatter ( y axis) versus the level of cell surface CD33-PE expression ( x axis). (asmscience.org)
  • Follicular DCs have high expression of complement receptors CR1 and CR2 (CD 35 and CD 21 respectively) and Fc-receptor FcγRIIb (CD32). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • O. Venkatesh P, they demonstrate that mature retinal what can change their architectures and receptor expressions, while glia can change their architectures and metabolic profiles. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • different
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, palmitate exerts its effect on fat cells at different levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • It describes a method that is commercially available as a kit (Orpegen) and includes an optional procedure to exclude from analysis cells with bound bacteria that have not been internalized (i.e., phagocytosed). (asmscience.org)