• inhibitory
  • The efficacy of fast synaptic inhibition is critically dependent on the accumulation of GABA A receptors at inhibitory synapses, a process that remains poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that synaptic GABA A receptors have lower levels of lateral mobility compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts, and suggest a specific role for gephyrin in reducing the diffusion of GABA A receptors, facilitating their accumulation at inhibitory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results reveal that synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA A Rs exhibit distinct cell surface dynamics and that gephyrin plays a critical role in reducing the mobility of GABA A R clusters, thereby promoting the formation of postsynaptic inhibitory specializations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor CD74 are upregulated by bladder inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • HOUSTON Colon cancer researchers are studying a variety of cell surface molecules and receptors as potential targets for new treatments aimed particularly at preventing or treating metastatic disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Interestingly, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, monocytes, or polymorphonuclear cells as well as complement-dependent cytotoxicity positively correlated with the number of EGFR molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signalling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 activation results in pyroptosis, a form of lytic cell death that releases inflammatory molecules such as ATP, HMGB1 and IL-1α from the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • The internalisation of R1aASA was slowed to that of R2 by mutating a di-leucine motif in the R1 C-terminus, indicating a new role for heterodimerisation, whereby R2 subunits slow the internalization of surface GABABRs. (bl.uk)
  • In hippocampal neurons, GABA A receptors incorporating pHluorin-tagged subunits were found to be clustered at synaptic sites and also expressed as diffuse extrasynaptic staining. (jneurosci.org)
  • The activated receptor subunits become scaffolding for assembly of a multi-enzyme signal-generating complex ( Lemmon and Schlessinger, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • SIALIC ACID
  • Moreover, Western blot analysis with lectins specific for α(2,3) and α(2,6)-linked sialic acids and lectin-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay support a direct effect on TSHR cell-surface expression mediated by sialic acid transfer to the TSHR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, we treated living COS-7 cells after cotransfection of TSHR and SIAT8a with neuraminidase for 30 min to remove covalently linked sialic acid. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Peptide
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell surface carbohydrate-dependent cancer metastasis, we developed a 7-mer peptide, designated as I-peptide, which is capable of inhibiting FUT3-transfected B16 cell colonization of lung in the mouse. (springer.com)
  • I-peptide inhibited lung colonization of FUT3-B16 cells in E-/P-selectin doubly deficient mutant mice, suggesting the existence of an as yet unidentified carbohydrate-binding endothelial receptor distinct from E-/P-selectins. (springer.com)
  • Subsequently, we isolated the endothelial receptors by I-peptide affinity chromatography and identified them by proteomics. (springer.com)
  • Fukuda MN, Ohyama C, Lowitz K, Matsuo O, Pasqualini R, Ruoslahti E, Fukuda M (2000) A peptide mimic of E-selectin ligand inhibits sialyl Lewis X-dependent lung colonization of tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • insulin
  • The insulin-receptor cycle was investigated in cultured foetal rat hepatocytes by determining the variations in insulin-binding sites at the cell surface after short exposure to the hormone. (biochemj.org)
  • This fall-rise sequence corresponded to variations in the number of insulin receptors at the cell surface, with no detectable change in receptor affinity. (biochemj.org)
  • The reversible translocation of insulin receptors from the cell surface to a compartment not accessible to insulin at 4 degrees C was hormone-concentration- and temperature-dependent. (biochemj.org)
  • The insulin-receptor cycle could be repeated after intermittent exposure to insulin. (biochemj.org)
  • A relationship could be established between the repetitive character of the rapid insulin-receptor cycle and the maximal expression of the biological effect in cultured foetal hepatocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • expression
  • Inhibiting gephyrin expression did not modify the total number of GABA A receptors expressed on the neuronal cell surface but significantly decreased the number of receptor clusters. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using RNA interference (RNAi), we reveal that decreasing gephyrin expression did not modify the total cell surface expression levels of GABA A Rs but significantly reduced the number of synaptic receptor clusters. (jneurosci.org)
  • A clinical study in non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a positive correlation between EGFR expression levels and the therapeutic efficacy of the EGFR mAb cetuximab. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells were used to systematically investigate the impact of target Ag expression levels on Fab- or Fc-mediated MoAs of EGFR mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • In comparison with ADCC by mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cell-mediated ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity required higher EGFR expression levels and higher mAb concentrations to trigger significant tumor cell killing. (jimmunol.org)
  • This correlation between EGFR expression levels and Fc-mediated MoA was confirmed in an independent panel of human tumor cell lines carrying diverse genetic alterations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments reinforced the impact of EGFR expression on tumor cell killing by EGFR mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hence, we investigated the effect of coexpressing the TSHR and different sialyltransferases (SIAT1, SIAT4a, and SIAT8a) for cell-surface expression of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent loss of TSHR cell-surface expression suggests that sialylation prolongs the resting time of the TSHR on the cell surface. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the role of B 1 receptor homo-oligomerization in cell surface receptor expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, these results are consistent with a mechanism where constitutive B 1 receptor homooligomerization is required for expression of receptors on the cell surface and subsequent constitutive receptor signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • HAVCR2 expression is up regulated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in lung, gastric, head and neck cancer, schwannoma, melanoma and follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As ever more researchers turn their attention to cellular senescence as a cause of aging and age-related disease, more potential approaches to selectively targeting these unwanted cells are emerging. (fightaging.org)
  • Cellular senescence refers to a state of irreversible growth arrest and altered function of normal somatic cells after a finite number of divisions . (fightaging.org)
  • In addition, progressive inability of the immune system to destroy senescent cells during aging results in the accumulation of "death-resistant" cells that accelerate aging and disease development by altering neighboring cell behavior, lowering the pool of mitotic-competent cells , degrading the cellular matrix , and stimulating cancer. (fightaging.org)
  • Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. (diva-portal.org)
  • metabotropic
  • Introduction of the SDs into the BBS-tagged metabotropic glutamate receptor-2 also conferred a decrease in internalisation. (bl.uk)
  • inhibition
  • Type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) are important for mediating slow inhibition in the central nervous system and the kinetics of their internalisation and lateral mobility will be a major determinant of their signalling efficacy. (bl.uk)
  • In conclusion, this study provides new and important insight into the mobility of cell surface GABABRs and the underlying mechanisms that ensure they provide efficacious slow synaptic inhibition. (bl.uk)
  • GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) are pentameric hetero-oligomers that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • TIM-3 is mainly expressed on activated CD8+ T cells and suppresses macrophage activation following PD-1 inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • maximally
  • Only one of the agonists shown can maximally stimulate the receptor and, thus, can be defined as a full agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example, the concentration at which the full agonist (red curve) can half-maximally activate the receptor is about 5 x 10−9 Molar (nM = nanomolar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • These distinct biological responses to NGF are controlled by receptors signaling from different locations within the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • The effect of internalization on receptor signaling is particularly relevant in considering biological responses to neurotrophins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) signaling through its receptor mediates the paracrine control of thyroid function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, macrophages and other cytotoxic lymphocytes consume or destroy cells by apoptotic signaling and present self-antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Two current models have been proposed to explain transmembrane receptors mechanism, dimerization considered as current standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mechanism driven approach for specific interaction and uptake of nanoparticles by senescent cells has thus become a challenging necessity. (fightaging.org)
  • The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ions) within vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells are capable of generating action potentials, but this mechanism is rarely utilized for contraction in the vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bone marrow, estrogen downregulates the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells through an IL-7 dependent mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • Surprisingly, it has recently been shown that LPS activates caspase-11 not through a receptor/scaffold mediator, but through direct LPS binding to the caspase-11 CARD domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • The B 2 receptor is expressed constitutively and thought to mediate kinin responses under nonpathological and shortterm responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • The present approaches to destroying senescent cells, those under active development and heading towards the clinic, don't even try to deliver their therapeutic agents selectively to senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • Therefore, individual components of the signal cascades might be used selectively during transit from the outer cell surface to the interior of the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • thyroid
  • While PTH acts to increase the concentration of ionic calcium (Ca2+) in the blood, calcitonin, a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland, acts to decrease ionic calcium concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • Senescent cells are characterized by a flattened shape, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and hypersecretion of cytokines , chemokines , and proteases , the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) . (fightaging.org)
  • membranes
  • Hakomori S (1985) Aberrant glycosylation in cancer cell membranes as focused on glycolipids: overview and perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Because of the ability of DSS to cross cell membranes, it is best suited for applications where intracelluclar crosslinking is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • B 1 receptors tagged with either the FLAG or hemagglutinin epitope were monitored immunologically and by radio-ligand binding, biotinylation, and phosphoinositide hydrolysis in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • regulate
  • we can acutely regulate endocytosis of Trk receptors by changing from the permissive to nonpermissive temperature. (jneurosci.org)
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2 types of cells also cross-regulate the functions of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • For my money, the best use of targeting mechanisms in the case of senescent cells is to deliver cell-killing mechanisms rather than the sort of cell-adjusting mechanisms used here, but when killing cells the targeting method has to have a very high degree of discrimination. (fightaging.org)
  • lung
  • In this study, BHK-21 cells were stably transfected to express different EGFR levels, which were quantified by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and compared with EGFR levels of clinical non-small cell lung cancer samples. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hatakeyama S, Sugihara K, Nakayama J, Akama TO, Wong SM, Kawashima H, Zhang J, Smith DF, Ohyama C, Fukuda M et al (2009) Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Toxic shock and sepsis may occur if too many host cells undergo pyroptosis, owing to either overstimulation of the immune system by the released cytoplasmic contents or to host cell depletion. (wikipedia.org)