• molecules
  • HOUSTON Colon cancer researchers are studying a variety of cell surface molecules and receptors as potential targets for new treatments aimed particularly at preventing or treating metastatic disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Therefore, the study of interactions between urothelial cell-surface receptors expressed during normal and diseased states and different molecules is likely to shed light on urothelial signal transduction in health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, monocytes, or polymorphonuclear cells as well as complement-dependent cytotoxicity positively correlated with the number of EGFR molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signalling molecules, in that hormones circulate in less variable concentrations and hormones tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) are important for mediating slow inhibition in the central nervous system and the kinetics of their internalisation and lateral mobility will be a major determinant of their signalling efficacy. (bl.uk)
  • In conclusion, this study provides new and important insight into the mobility of cell surface GABABRs and the underlying mechanisms that ensure they provide efficacious slow synaptic inhibition. (bl.uk)
  • The efficacy of fast synaptic inhibition is critically dependent on the accumulation of GABA A receptors at inhibitory synapses, a process that remains poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) are pentameric hetero-oligomers that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • suggests that functional antagonism of S1P 1 in the lymphocyte compartment is essential for the inhibition of T cell egress. (rupress.org)
  • subunits
  • The internalisation of R1aASA was slowed to that of R2 by mutating a di-leucine motif in the R1 C-terminus, indicating a new role for heterodimerisation, whereby R2 subunits slow the internalization of surface GABABRs. (bl.uk)
  • In hippocampal neurons, GABA A receptors incorporating pHluorin-tagged subunits were found to be clustered at synaptic sites and also expressed as diffuse extrasynaptic staining. (jneurosci.org)
  • The activated receptor subunits become scaffolding for assembly of a multi-enzyme signal-generating complex ( Lemmon and Schlessinger, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Together, our results demonstrate that synaptic GABA A receptors have lower levels of lateral mobility compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts, and suggest a specific role for gephyrin in reducing the diffusion of GABA A receptors, facilitating their accumulation at inhibitory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results reveal that synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA A Rs exhibit distinct cell surface dynamics and that gephyrin plays a critical role in reducing the mobility of GABA A R clusters, thereby promoting the formation of postsynaptic inhibitory specializations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor CD74 are upregulated by bladder inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Peptide
  • We have pioneered an approach to identify cancer-relevant ligand receptors involving the selection of combinatorial random peptide libraries in terminal cancer patients ( 3, 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell surface carbohydrate-dependent cancer metastasis, we developed a 7-mer peptide, designated as I-peptide, which is capable of inhibiting FUT3-transfected B16 cell colonization of lung in the mouse. (springer.com)
  • I-peptide inhibited lung colonization of FUT3-B16 cells in E-/P-selectin doubly deficient mutant mice, suggesting the existence of an as yet unidentified carbohydrate-binding endothelial receptor distinct from E-/P-selectins. (springer.com)
  • Subsequently, we isolated the endothelial receptors by I-peptide affinity chromatography and identified them by proteomics. (springer.com)
  • agonist
  • Agonist binding to a receptor can be characterized both in terms of how much physiological response can be triggered and in terms of the concentration of the agonist that is required to produce the physiological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one of the agonists shown can maximally stimulate the receptor and, thus, can be defined as a full agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example, the concentration at which the full agonist (red curve) can half-maximally activate the receptor is about 5 x 10−9 Molar (nM = nanomolar). (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • MIF-mediated signal transduction involves binding to cell-surface CD74, this study documents, in vivo, MIF- CD74 interactions at the urothelial cell surface. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent work led us to hypothesize that this tropism may reflect pathogenic interactions between RAGE, a cell surface receptor expressed on malignant cells in advanced prostate cancer, and proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease present in inflammatory neutrophils and hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow niche ( 2 ), it has been proposed that specific cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions might mediate tumor cell trafficking to the axial skeletal microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biophys
  • Udgaonkar, J.A. and Hess, G.P., Acetylcholine receptor: Channel-opening kinetics evaluated by rapid chemical kinetic and single-channel current measurements, Biophys. (springer.com)
  • induce
  • they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In additionwe show that AGP?bound hydroxyeicasotetraenoic acids (HETEs) induce increasesin [Ca2+]i in neutrophils through binding to the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT2. (openthesis.org)
  • immune system
  • In addition, progressive inability of the immune system to destroy senescent cells during aging results in the accumulation of "death-resistant" cells that accelerate aging and disease development by altering neighboring cell behavior, lowering the pool of mitotic-competent cells , degrading the cellular matrix , and stimulating cancer. (fightaging.org)
  • The immune system surveys antigens for foreign pathogens when presented by MHC receptors (like HLA-DP). (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • Combined fat accumulation and formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) activate TLR2 receptor through the binding of oxLDL to CD36, and triggers the disproportional recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages causing the inflammation. (mitacs.ca)
  • interaction
  • These results document that our previously described MIF-CD74 interaction occurs at the urothelial cell surface. (hindawi.com)
  • This interaction facilitates a complementary surface contact between the Smad DNA-binding hairpin and the major groove of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Synthesis and photochemistry of a new class of o-nitrobenzyl derivatives and their effects on receptor function, Biochemistry 25: 1799 (1986). (springer.com)
  • initiate
  • Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. (diva-portal.org)
  • signal transduction
  • PR3 bound to RAGE on the surface of prostate cancer cells in vitro , inducing tumor cell motility through a nonproteolytic signal transduction cascade involving activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • Here, an α-bungarotoxin binding site (BBS) was inserted into the N-terminus of R2 to monitor receptor mobility in live cells. (bl.uk)
  • In the paper I'll point out here, the cell surface receptor CD9 is used to target nanoparticles carrying a therapeutic payload into senescent cells . (fightaging.org)
  • For my money, the best use of targeting mechanisms in the case of senescent cells is to deliver cell-killing mechanisms rather than the sort of cell-adjusting mechanisms used here, but when killing cells the targeting method has to have a very high degree of discrimination. (fightaging.org)
  • However, it fails to justify cell-specific uptake of these nanosystems to senescent cells following intravenous or subcutaneous delivery. (fightaging.org)
  • Hence, we proposed a proof-of-concept regarding delivery of rapamycin (Rapa) loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with CD9 receptor mediated targeting, in addition to utilization of β-galactosidase activity, in senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • to change the location of activated NGF receptors (Trk A) in PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • These cells contained a biotinylated MIF/CD74 cell-surface complex that was increased in SP-treated animals. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, BHK-21 cells were stably transfected to express different EGFR levels, which were quantified by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and compared with EGFR levels of clinical non-small cell lung cancer samples. (jimmunol.org)
  • In comparison with ADCC by mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cell-mediated ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity required higher EGFR expression levels and higher mAb concentrations to trigger significant tumor cell killing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hatakeyama S, Sugihara K, Nakayama J, Akama TO, Wong SM, Kawashima H, Zhang J, Smith DF, Ohyama C, Fukuda M et al (2009) Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Normally, these APC 'present' class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell receptor (TCR) variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAVCR2 was first described in 2002 as a cell surface molecule expressed on IFNγ producing CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Tung, M.F. and McNamee, M.G., Stabilization of acetylcholine receptor secondary structure by cholesterol and negatively charged phospholipids in membranes, Biochemistry 26: 3871 (1986). (springer.com)
  • Hakomori S (1985) Aberrant glycosylation in cancer cell membranes as focused on glycolipids: overview and perspectives. (springer.com)
  • Because of the ability of DSS to cross cell membranes, it is best suited for applications where intracelluclar crosslinking is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • This correlation between EGFR expression levels and Fc-mediated MoA was confirmed in an independent panel of human tumor cell lines carrying diverse genetic alterations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments reinforced the impact of EGFR expression on tumor cell killing by EGFR mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • presynaptic
  • By combining FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) measurements with live imaging of FM4-64-labeled active presynaptic terminals, it was evident that clustered synaptic receptors exhibit significantly lower rates of mobility at the cell surface compared with their extrasynaptic counterparts. (jneurosci.org)