• Cytoplasmic
  • Daxx, a Death domain-associated protein, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic interaction with the classical death receptor Fas. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • This results in the formation of GC, where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic mutation, positive and negative selection, isotype switching, and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If they demonstrate high affinity for self-antigen, one method of preventing autoimmunity is through clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone-marrow
  • The main phenotype found in IL-6-sIL-6R mice was a dramatic increase of extramedullary hematopoietic progenitor cells in liver and spleen but not in the bone marrow.The high numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells were reflected by a strong increase of peripheral blood cell numbers.Therefore, activators of the gp130 signal transducer like the IL-6-IL-6R complex may represent most powerful stimulators for extramedullary hematopoietic progenitor cells. (nih.gov)
  • defective
  • These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Right) For the same tube, the same populations were visualized on the basis of right-angle light scatter ( y axis) versus the level of cell surface CD33-PE expression ( x axis). (asmscience.org)
  • Follicular DCs have high expression of complement receptors CR1 and CR2 (CD 35 and CD 21 respectively) and Fc-receptor FcγRIIb (CD32). (wikipedia.org)
  • they increase host defenses by up-regulating antigen presentation by virtue of increasing the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p120 protein displays a dramatic increase in expression at the G1/S transition suggesting that p120 regulates the cell cycle and nucleolar activity that is required for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular DCs are a non-migratory population found in primary and secondary follicles of the B cell areas of lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (wikipedia.org)
  • B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, mice lacking LT or LT receptors, which are devoid of FDC, develop generalized lymphocytic infiltrates, which are suggestive of autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental production of mice deprived of selected T-cell subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The high numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells were reflected by a strong increase of peripheral blood cell numbers. (nih.gov)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the white pulp, but are mislocalized and disorganized. (wikipedia.org)
  • These B cells do not pose a threat, even in the periphery, because they cannot be activated without an autoreactive T cell to stimulate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 2% and 5% of T cells develop auto-reactive receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring cells against a potential infection by the virus by releasing interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • With the implicit understanding that monocytes and granulocytes represent distinct cell lineages, this chapter reviews laboratory procedures which can be utilized to assess their functions and phenotypes. (asmscience.org)
  • chromosome
  • These changes include an extra copy of part of chromosome 7 in each cell (partial trisomy 7) or a missing segment of the chromosome in each cell (partial monosomy 7). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex, which suggests it is possible for a cell to undergo positive selection within the cortex and then negative selection in the medulla via clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Interferon type III: Signal through a receptor complex consisting of IL10R2 (also called CRF2-4) and IFNLR1 (also called CRF2-12). (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether the Fas-receptor stimuli or the ASK1 overexpression are caused by ROS or CRM1 mediated export. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Nitroglycerin-induced endothelial dysfunction and tolerance involve adverse phosphorylation and S-glutathionylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: beneficial effects of therapy with the AT1 receptor blocker telmisartan," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2223-2231, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • type
  • IFN type II binds to IFNGR, which consists of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 chains and has a different receptor than type I IFN. (wikipedia.org)