• oncogene
  • The NF1 protein functions as a negative regulator of the Ras oncogene. (massgeneral.org)
  • The family of Trk receptors is named for the oncogene trk, whose identification led to the discovery of its first member, TrkA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic features of neuroblastoma include N-Myc oncogene amplification or allelic loss, near triploid karyotype, deletion of short arm of chromosome 1, and high expression of neurotrophin receptors (TrkA and TrkB), all of which are associated with malignant transformation and progression of this disease. (hindawi.com)
  • tumor suppr
  • Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic and/or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer routinely involves the activation of oncogenes (K- ras ) and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes ( p53, p16 INK4a , and Rb ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • inhibits
  • Alteration of FGF signal transduction by endostatin inhibits the migration of endothelial cells through disruption of cell-matrix adhesions, cell-cell adhesions, and cytoskeletal reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most ligands are soluble molecules from the extracellular medium which bind to cell surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) and its splicing isoform (NK1, NK2) are the only known ligands of the MET receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common ligands of trk receptors are neurotrophins, a family of growth factors critical to the functioning of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotrophin ligands of Trk receptors are processed ligands, meaning that they are synthesized in immature forms and then transformed by protease cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • BLT2 is a Cell surface receptor that functions by recognizing, binding, and mediating responses to a particular set of messenger molecules or ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Interestingly, several of the Bcd target genes, including hb and otd , are first expressed during syncytial development as anterior caps that are repressed at the pole upon activation of Torso later on during cellularisation. (biologists.org)
  • In a simplified model, the presence of mitogens and growth factors trigger the activation of canonical receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR leading to their dimerization and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Ras. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the activation of STATs, JAKs mediate the recruitment of other molecules such as the MAP kinases, PI3 kinase etc. (kegg.jp)
  • However, Raf activation does not exclusively depend on Ras. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the classical MAP kinases, these atypical MAPKs require only a single residue in their activation loops to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some receptors such as HER2 are capable of ligand-independent activation when overexpressed or mutated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When HGF/SF binds its cognate receptor MET it induces its dimerization through a not yet completely understood mechanism leading to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MET activation by its ligand HGF induces MET kinase catalytic activity, which triggers transphosphorylation of the tyrosines Tyr 1234 and Tyr 1235. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with SPRED2 to regulate activation of the MAP kinase cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the activation of these receptors also has significant effects on functional properties of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) affects the binding affinity and specificity of Trk receptor activation by neurotrophins. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Other adaptor molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS) can also activate p110. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some molecules such as steroid hormones are lipid-soluble and thus cross the plasma membrane to reach nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK1
  • Thus the role of mammalian ERK1/2 kinases as regulators of cell proliferation is not a generic, but a highly specialized function. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino-acid
  • Normal Trk receptors do not contain amino acid or DNA sequences related to tropomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two BLT2-like receptors, Blt2a and Blt2b, with 49% amino acid identity to each other and 34% and 29%, respectively, amino acid identities to human BLT2 have been cloned from Zebrafish embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter citation presents a phylogenic tree on the amino acid relateness of these two receptors as well as those from humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • In these scenarios, Tat TAFII250 and Tat Tip60 never have an impact on the transcription in the HIV one LTR, but interfere using the transcription action of cellular genes. (bossforum.net)
  • The interaction of Tat with p300 CBP and P CAF stimulates its capability to transactivate LTR dependent transcription, although Tat TAFII250 or Tat Tip60 interactions control the transcription of cellular genes. (bossforum.net)
  • mutations
  • Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor sevenless (sev) in Drosophila and their use in determining its time of action. (springer.com)
  • Our study aims to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Neoadj-Chemo) on EGFR activating mutations and associated EGFR-TKIs resistance-related genes. (jove.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endostatin represses cell cycle control and anti-apoptosis genes in proliferating endothelial cells, resulting in cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • A second category of modifiers consists of genes involved in cAMP/PKA signaling, whereas a third includes genes involved in regulating synaptic architecture or functioning. (massgeneral.org)
  • cells
  • Other receptor interactions include the VEGF-R2/KDR/Flk-1 receptor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies have estimated that endostatin may significantly affect 12% of genes used by human endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To our shock lots of host cellular genes have been down regulated when evaluating HIV 1 infected latent cells to uninfected parental cells. (bossforum.net)
  • with latently infected cells, we observed lots of cellular genes to be down regulated in Tat expressing lymphocytes. (bossforum.net)
  • Gads and Grap are expressed specifically in hematopoietic cells and function in the coordination of tyrosine kinase mediated signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes to Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptor subunits are expressed in activated monocytes and in unstimulated epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemokines transcribed from these genes recruit T-cells to the irritated skin where they secrete more IL-31. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • suggesting that Bcd and Torso can act independently on common target genes. (biologists.org)
  • Once activated, they dimerize and translocate to the nucleus and modulate the expression of target genes. (kegg.jp)
  • transducers
  • These two tyrosines engage various signal transducers, thus initiating a whole spectrum of biological activities driven by MET, collectively known as the invasive growth program. (wikipedia.org)