• target genes
  • Interestingly, several of the Bcd target genes, including hb and otd , are first expressed during syncytial development as anterior caps that are repressed at the pole upon activation of Torso later on during cellularisation. (biologists.org)
  • suggesting that Bcd and Torso can act independently on common target genes. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, genome-wide surveys have found numerous putative RAS target genes mediating RAS transformation ( 21 , 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Once activated, they dimerize and translocate to the nucleus and modulate the expression of target genes. (kegg.jp)
  • inhibits
  • Alteration of FGF signal transduction by endostatin inhibits the migration of endothelial cells through disruption of cell-matrix adhesions, cell-cell adhesions, and cytoskeletal reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • In addition to the activation of STATs, JAKs mediate the recruitment of other molecules such as the MAP kinases, PI3 kinase etc. (kegg.jp)
  • The molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer routinely involves the activation of oncogenes (K- ras ) and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes ( p53, p16 INK4a , and Rb ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, Raf activation does not exclusively depend on Ras. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a simplified model, the presence of mitogens and growth factors trigger the activation of canonical receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR leading to their dimerization and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Ras. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the classical MAP kinases, these atypical MAPKs require only a single residue in their activation loops to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some receptors such as HER2 are capable of ligand-independent activation when overexpressed or mutated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When HGF/SF binds its cognate receptor MET it induces its dimerization through a not yet completely understood mechanism leading to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MET activation by its ligand HGF induces MET kinase catalytic activity, which triggers transphosphorylation of the tyrosines Tyr 1234 and Tyr 1235. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with SPRED2 to regulate activation of the MAP kinase cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the activation of these receptors also has significant effects on functional properties of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) affects the binding affinity and specificity of Trk receptor activation by neurotrophins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, STAT-3 is activated which leads to the activation of many downstream genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor sevenless (sev) in Drosophila and their use in determining its time of action. (springer.com)
  • Dominant mutations in the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase lead to the familial cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). (genetics.org)
  • A genetic screen for mutations that dominantly suppress or enhance dRet MEN2 phenotypes identified new genes that are required for the phenotypic outcomes of dRet MEN2 activity. (genetics.org)
  • The relationship between oncogenic tyrosine kinases and tumor suppressors, and the extent to which mutations in each cooperate to direct oncogenic growth, is not well understood. (genetics.org)
  • molecules
  • Other adaptor molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS) can also activate p110. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some molecules such as steroid hormones are lipid-soluble and thus cross the plasma membrane to reach nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogenes
  • Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic and/or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • While others have reported that dNf1 has physically separable Ras and cAMP related functions, our work identified a neuronal Ras signaling defect as the proximal cause of dNf1 phenotypes. (massgeneral.org)
  • Importantly, NF1-regulated ALK/RAS signaling appears conserved in man, identifying ALK as an attractive therapeutic target. (massgeneral.org)
  • A second category of modifiers consists of genes involved in cAMP/PKA signaling, whereas a third includes genes involved in regulating synaptic architecture or functioning. (massgeneral.org)
  • Rasl and a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor perform crucial steps in signaling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase. (springer.com)
  • An important goal in cancer biology is to identify means of countervailing activated RAS signaling to reverse malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • How to best contravene hyperactivated RAS signaling has remained elusive in human pancreatic cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, we determined the roles of the conserved human homologues of SINA, SIAHs, in mammalian RAS signaling and RAS-mediated tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report that similar to its Drosophila counterpart, human SIAH is also required for oncogenic RAS signaling in pancreatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By targeting SIAH, we have found a novel means to contravene oncogenic RAS signaling and block RAS-mediated transformation/tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite the central importance of RAS signaling in human cancer, direct inhibition of hyperactivated RAS has not achieved sufficient clinical efficacy ( 8 , 11 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Signaling events downstream of RAS are complex, nonlinear, and dynamic ( 16 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite the identification of these diverse RAS targets, it is still difficult to precisely determine which downstream signaling components represent the best therapeutic targets for blocking RAS-mediated neoplastic transformation/tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, identifying the ideal downstream targets in RAS signal transduction to best contravene oncogenic RAS signaling remains a major challenge in cancer biology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although endostatin signaling may affect this vast number of genes, the downstream affects appear surprisingly limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This signaling involves nine different alternatively spliced isoforms of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trk receptors affect neuronal survival and differentiation through several signaling cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences in the signaling initiated by these distinct types of receptors are important for generating diverse biological responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino-acid
  • Normal Trk receptors do not contain amino acid or DNA sequences related to tropomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two BLT2-like receptors, Blt2a and Blt2b, with 49% amino acid identity to each other and 34% and 29%, respectively, amino acid identities to human BLT2 have been cloned from Zebrafish embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter citation presents a phylogenic tree on the amino acid relateness of these two receptors as well as those from humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • In these scenarios, Tat TAFII250 and Tat Tip60 never have an impact on the transcription in the HIV one LTR, but interfere using the transcription action of cellular genes. (bossforum.net)
  • The interaction of Tat with p300 CBP and P CAF stimulates its capability to transactivate LTR dependent transcription, although Tat TAFII250 or Tat Tip60 interactions control the transcription of cellular genes. (bossforum.net)
  • apoptosis
  • Endostatin represses cell cycle control and anti-apoptosis genes in proliferating endothelial cells, resulting in cell death. (wikipedia.org)