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  • serotonergic
  • Serotonergic action is terminated primarily via uptake of 5-HT from the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • This figure depicts the location of the major serotonin (5-HT)-producing cells (raphe nuclei) innervating brain structures (A), and various cellular regulatory processes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (B). 5-HT neurons project widely throughout the CNS and innervate virtually every part of the neuroaxis. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • cisplatin
  • This is a Phase 3, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, active-controlled study of rolapitant in subjects receiving HEC (≥60 mg/m2 of cisplatin-based chemotherapy). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • EA was performed at CV12 (n=12), bilateral PC6 (n=12), or sham points (n=12) 3 days before and 1-2 days after cisplatin administration (4-5 times in total), at 0.5-1 mA intensity and 2/15 Hz frequency for 10 min. (bmj.com)
  • EA at CV12 also attenuated the cisplatin-induced increase in 5-HT in the duodenum and suppressed c-Fos expression in the NTS. (bmj.com)
  • tract
  • Approximately 80% of total body serotonin is found in the GI tract, the remainder being divided between the platelets, which avidly take up free serotonin, and the central nervous system. (wiley.com)
  • regulate
  • 2005). The organism's ability to regulate 5-HT neuron activity and function has been a major ongoing focus of psychiatric disorder research and treatments. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • protein
  • The binding of 5-HT to G protein receptors (Go, G¡, etc.) that are coupled to adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C-B (PLC-15) will result in the production of a cascade of second-messenger and cellular effects. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • mainly
  • Serotonin is metabolized mainly to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known for more than 25 years that there is a substantial amount of serotonin (5-hydroxytrypamine or 5HT) in the gut, distributed mainly in the enteroendocrine cells with a small amount in the enteric nervous system. (wiley.com)
  • treatment
  • This has lead to a number of significant advances including 5HT 3 antagonists for the treatment of functional diarrhoea, 5HT 4 agonists for the treatment of constipation and 5HT 1 agonists for the treatment of impaired fundal relaxation. (wiley.com)
  • They cannot for antiemetic treatment, the number of agents, and the indica- be considered to be inclusive of all proper methods of care or tions for antiemetics have all increased as well. (marysfamilymedicine.org)
  • 16. A method of treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor-mediated disorder comprising the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a compound as recited in claim 1 to a patient in need thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • nerve
  • The serontonin 5-HT 3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. (drugbank.ca)
  • Presynaptic regulation of 5-HT neuron firing activity and release occurs through somatodendritic 5-HTia (not shown) and 5-HTib,id autoreceptors, respectively, located on nerve terminals. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Structures
  • Classical cannabinoid agonists (structures shown in Table 1 ) bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1, CB2) that modulate signal transduction cascades to produce various physiological and pathological outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • occurs
  • In physiologic states, vasodilation occurs through the serotonin mediated release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally which leads to increased serotonin uptake by circulating platelets and activation after stimulation, which gives increased stimulation of myenteric neurons and gastrointestinal motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The antimigraine effects of this agent are likely mediated by local activation of this receptor subtype on blood vessels, which results in their constriction. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • However, it has become clear that not all effects of cannabinoid drugs are attributable to their interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • cancer
  • Considering the CNS and cancer together allow identification of non-cannabinoid receptor targets that are shared and divergent in both systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • classes
  • Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Serotonin is also a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • see Figure 1-4A later in this chapter), leading to the suggestion that 5-HT exerts a major modulatory role throughout the CNS (Reader 1980). (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Initial difficulties in understanding its role was inevitable, given that it is now recognized that there are over 21 different receptor subtypes. (wiley.com)
  • effect
  • Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebae, and its effect in the human gut is diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • EA at PC6 influenced kaolin intake (on day 1 only) and c-Fos expression, but had no statistically significant effect on food intake, bodyweight or 5-HT expression. (bmj.com)
  • The anti-emetic effect of EA may be mediated through inhibition of 5-HT secretion in the duodenum and activity of the NTS. (bmj.com)
  • specific
  • As more specific agonists and antagonists have become available more discriminating studies have become possible to define these many separate and sometimes conflicting responses. (wiley.com)
  • neurons
  • In contrast, in the central nervous system serotonin can also be synthesized by the neurons of the Raphe nuclei that are distributed along the length of the brainstem in nine pairs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This figure depicts the location of the major serotonin (5-HT)-producing cells (raphe nuclei) innervating brain structures (A), and various cellular regulatory processes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (B). 5-HT neurons project widely throughout the CNS and innervate virtually every part of the neuroaxis. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally , which leads to increased serotonin uptake by circulating platelets and activation after stimulation, which gives increased stimulation of myenteric neurons and gastrointestinal motility . (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • A dose of 1 - 3 mg (10 - 40 µg/kg) of Granisetron should be administered either as a slow intravenous injection or as a diluted intravenous infusion 5 minutes prior to the start of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. (medicines.org.uk)
  • A dose of 1 - 3 mg (10 - 40 µg/kg) of Granisetron should be administered either as a slow intravenous injection or as a diluted intravenous infusion and administered over 5 minutes. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The efficacy of parenteral granisetron may be enhanced by an additional intravenous dose of an adrenocortical steroid e.g. by 8 - 20 mg dexamethasone administered before the start of the cytostatic therapy or by 250 mg methyl-prednisolone administered prior to the start and shortly after the end of the chemotherapy. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Administration may be as either a slow intravenous injection (over 30 seconds) or as an intravenous infusion diluted in 20 - 50 ml infusion fluid and administered over 5 minutes. (medicines.org.uk)
  • clinical
  • not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to As antiemetic usage has grown, the classes of agents available particular patients or special clinical situations. (marysfamilymedicine.org)
  • agent
  • First, Rapport identified it as a vasoconstrictor substance in the blood serum, and because it is a serum agent that affected vascular tone he called it serotonin . (encyclopedia.com)
  • 20. The method as recited in claim 18 wherein said additional therapeutic agent is a H1-receptor antagonist selected from the group consisting of levocetirizine, desloratadine, and fexofenadine, astemizole, terfenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • total
  • EA was performed at CV12 (n=12), bilateral PC6 (n=12), or sham points (n=12) 3 days before and 1-2 days after cisplatin administration (4-5 times in total), at 0.5-1 mA intensity and 2/15 Hz frequency for 10 min. (bmj.com)
  • major
  • 2005). The organism's ability to regulate 5-HT neuron activity and function has been a major ongoing focus of psychiatric disorder research and treatments. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)