• tyrosine
  • CIML researchers identified the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing KARAP/DAP12 that is important for NK cell function and characterized the key function of the killer activated receptor NKp46. (wikipedia.org)
  • KIR inhibitory receptors signal through their immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inhibitory KIR receptors bind to a ligand, their ITIMs are tyrosine phosphorylated and protein tyrosine phosphatases, including SHP-1, are recruited. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). (cancerindex.org)
  • Transcriptional regulators AIRE and FEZ2 are expressed by the thymic medullary epithelium, and drives the transcription of organ-specific genes such as insulin to allow maturing thymocytes to be exposed to a more complex set of self-antigens than is present in the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Lutzner cells, there is a mutation in the T-cell receptor that inhibits antigens like CD8 and CD7, but stimulates the over production of other antigens like CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating receptors recognize ligands that indicate host cell aberration, including induced-self antigens (which are markers of infected self cells and include MICA, MICB, and ULBP, all of which are related to MCH class 1 molecules), altered-self antigens (MHC class I antigens laden with foreign peptide), and/or non-self (pathogen encoded molecules). (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • citation needed] Junctional diversity includes the process of somatic recombination or V(D)J recombination, during which the different variable gene segments (those segments involved in antigen recognition) of TCRs and immunoglobulins are rearranged and unused segments removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKS1B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 12 Open Reading Frame 42 (C12orf42) is a protein-encoding gene in Homo sapiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein released by this gene is known as uncharacterized protein C12orf42. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-7 receptor subunit alpha (IL7R-α) also known as CD127 (Cluster of Differentiation 127) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL7R gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELKS/RAB6-interacting/CAST family member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERC1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name ELKS is derived from "protein rich in the amino acids E, L, K and S" The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of RIM-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Various gating strategies can be employed to enhance the detection of minor populations, thus providing a level of sensitivity comparable to molecular methods (gene rearrangement studies). (labcorp.com)
  • cells
  • T cell receptor gene rearrangement and expression in ataxia-telangiectasia B lymphoblastoid cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • The production of distinct sets of T cell receptor (TCR) γδ + T cells occurs in an ordered fashion in thymic development. (rupress.org)
  • The Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes, located downstream in the TCRγ Cγ1 gene cluster, are expressed by the earliest waves of developing TCRγδ + T cells in the fetal thymus, destined for intraepithelial locations. (rupress.org)
  • Upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 genes are expressed in later waves in the adult and constitute most TCRγδ + T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide a mechanism for specialization of the fetal thymus for the production of T cells expressing specific Vγ genes. (rupress.org)
  • The use of this technique is especially useful for the classification of cases of ALL in which the cells are negative with respect to most current phenotypic markers and in cases of T cell lymphocytosis in which the finding of a gene rearrangement identifies a monoclonal cell population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • From a patient with chronic ATL, whose leukemic cells proliferated in vitro in response to IL-2, we repeatedly established leukemic T cell clones having the same rearrangement profile of the T beta chain gene as the leukemic cells. (rupress.org)
  • These IL-2-reactive nonleukemic T cells might have been selected in vitro, because their leukemic cells failed to respond to IL-2, despite the expression of IL-2 receptor. (rupress.org)
  • This process of V(D)J recombination has vital roles for the vertebrate immune system, as it is able to generate a huge repertoire of different T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin molecules required for pathogen antigen recognition by T-cells and B cells, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of these T cells were also investigated, leading in particular to the identification of Granzyme A and GZMB (then called CTLA-1 and CTLA-3) and the demonstration of their playing a role in the perforin-granzyme-based mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and to the discovery of the second, Fas ligand/Fas receptor based pathway of cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzner cells develop because of clonal gene rearrangements in the T-cell receptor or antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ is the receptor that is selected for and increases in number in Lutzner cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutated cells are mature T-lymphocytes and contain CD4+ receptors on the membrane surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such functions are all carried out by the innate immune system, which employs evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors to eliminate cells displaying "nonself markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma membrane of natural killer (NK) cells and a minority of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • KIR receptors can distinguish between major histocompatibility (MHC) class I allelic variants, which allows them to detect virally infected cells or transformed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer cell cytolysis of target cells and cytokine production is controlled by a balance of inhibitory and activating signals, which are facilitated by NK cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • KIR and CD94 (CTLR) receptors are expressed by 5% of peripheral blood T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitory receptors recognize self-MHC class I molecules on target self cells, causing the activation of signaling pathways that stop the cytolytic function of NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the missing-self hypothesis, inhibitory KIR receptors recognize the downregulation of MHC class I molecules in virally-infected or transformed self cells, leading these receptors to stop sending the inhibition signal, which then leads to the lysis of these unhealthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • The γ locus consists of three functional Jγ-Cγ genes and up to seven Vγ genes, with four of the Vγ genes clustered together upstream of Jγ1 - Cγ1 ( Fig. 1 B ) ( 2 - 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • The beta locus also includes eight trypsinogen genes, three of which encode functional proteins and five of which are pseudogenes. (cancerindex.org)
  • antibodies
  • Clonal gene rearrangements create novel or new surface antibodies during early differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adaptive or "specific" immune system in its fully qualified form (i.e. based on major histocompatibility complex (MHC), T-cell receptors (TCR), and antibodies) exists only in jawed vertebrates, but an independently evolved adaptive immune system has been identified in hagfish and lampreys (non-jawed vertebrates). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Researchers at the CIML also published the first nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene and described how the TCR recognizes its MHC ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Much of this diversity is caused by a great potential variability in CDR3 sequences in the TCR δ chain, but there is also diversity in the number of V, J, and (in the case of δ) D gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements via Transposition involves the movement of sequences throughout the genome and has no requirement for sequence homology. (coursehero.com)
  • In higher eukaryotes, DNA can be methylated at cytosine mainly in the context of CpG dinucleotide sequences, producing 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the accumulation of which at promoter regions is often associated with the repressive state of gene loci as well as its stable maintenance, known as gene silencing. (wiley.com)
  • A study was done on the olfactory receptor gene clusters where they questioned if there was an association between normal rearrangement of 8p and the repeated inverted sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • KIR molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning that their gene sequences differ greatly between individuals, and polygenic so that it is extremely rare for two unrelated individuals to possess the same KIR genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • As a result, the cross-fused gene encodes vital transcription factors that are found in medullary thyroid cancer and small-cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single substitutions, insertions, or deletions in the genetic material that encodes KIR receptors changes the site of termination for the gene, causing the cytoplasmic tail to be long or short, depending on the site of the stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCRB
  • A semi-automated PCR method involving fluorescent-labeled PCR products and non-denaturing capillary electrophoresis is performed to detect only complete TCRB rearrangements. (mdanderson.org)
  • lineage
  • Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene probes have been used to investigate cell lineage and monoclonality in lymphoid malignancies. (mysciencework.com)
  • These data suggest that development of the machinery required for gene rearrangement may precede commitment to B or T cell lineage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (wiley.com)
  • Hence, nuclear machinery that is involved in activation or repression of genes constitutes an integral part of lineage commitment. (wiley.com)
  • thymic
  • Knockout mice which genetically lack IL-7 receptor exhibit thymic atrophy, arrest of T-cell development at the double positive stage, and severe lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • DNA methylation and histone modifications are central to epigenetic gene regulation, which has been shown to play a crucial role in development. (wiley.com)
  • However, the rearrangement of several lambda variable subgenes can activate expression of an overlapping miRNA gene, which has consequences for gene expression regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • This developmental pattern is caused in part by a preference for rearrangements of the downstream Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes in the early fetal stage, which switches to a preference for rearrangements of the upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 gene rearrangements in the adult. (rupress.org)
  • At the adult stage, repression of the downstream Vγ4 and Vγ3 genes through elements associated with the promoter segments overrides the downstream advantage resulting in preferential rearrangement of the upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 gene segments. (rupress.org)