• Expression
  • Gene expression data and [Ca 2+ ] i recordings with uridine-5′-triphosphate or with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 demonstrated the involvement of purinergic P2Y2 receptors and the PLC/inositol trisphosphate pathway. (biochemj.org)
  • Leptin stimulates expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in a population of arcuate neurons that process the peptide precursor to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which then acts on central MC receptors MC3 and MC4R to inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, irisin also promoted the expression of betatrophin, another newly identified hormone that promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation and improves glucose tolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1,25-(OH)2D3 transiently but strongly induces Insig-2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the receptors is correlated with insulin levels, as well as reduced in mouse models of diabetes, particularly in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of GAB1 was also implicated in the biology of B cell malignancies, and is regulated by non-coding RNA (miRNA) termed miR-150. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLR4
  • Moreover, recent studies have provided evidence for the contribution of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are elevated in obesity and through their interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) FFA induce proinflammatory pathways in macrophages and other cell types that may promote insulin resistance ( Samuel and Shulman, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Peritoneal macrophages obtained from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice exhibited marked attenuation of TNFα production in response to saturated FAs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Toll-Like Rec
  • Interestingly, we also report for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct binding of resistin to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to the activation of the associated proinflammatory pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • nuclear
  • RORs exhibit a domain structure typical of nuclear receptors and contain an N-terminal domain, the function of which has not yet been clearly defined, a highly conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD) consisting of two zinc finger motifs, a LBD, and a hinge domain spacing the DBD and LBD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Findings suggest that this control acts via the stimulation of LXR nuclear receptors by cyclically produced oxysterols such that rhythmic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism is not just driven by alternating feeding-fasting cycles, but also by REV-ERBalpha, a component of the circadian clockwork circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects are mediated by specific nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • When FITM2 has a mutation in its fourth transmembrane domain that happens to be a gain-of-function one, is found overexpressed in cells, it has unfailingly caused the buildup of TG rich lipid droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of mammals, the construction of lipid droplets is a process that is strictly controlled, using hormone induced signals, proteins related to droplets, and lipases as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • However, the resistin receptor and the molecular mechanisms mediating its effects in the hypothalamus, crucial for energy homeostasis control, and key insulin-sensitive tissues are still unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • obesity
  • Emerging evidence suggests that the IL-33-driven type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)/eosinophil axis plays a role in browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby preventing development of obesity ( 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents is associated with hyperleptinemia and resistance to leptin, but the response to agents acting downstream of leptin receptors remains unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutation in genes encoding POMC ( 14 , 15 ), the POMC-processing enzymes pc-1 ( 19 , 20 ) and carboxypeptidase E ( 20 ), and the MC3 ( 11 , 12 , 21 ) or MC4 ( 10 , 22 , 23 ) receptors cause obesity, as do overexpression of the MC antagonists agouti or AgRP ( 24 - 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying the development of obesity may include enzymatic/receptor and hormonal changes (i.e., lipoprotein lipase, hormone sensitive lipase, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, insulin, growth hormone, catecholamine) in the skeletal muscles and adipose tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • adipose tissue
  • There are differences in the immune cell composition of adipose tissue between lean and obese individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, regulatory T cells and Th2 cells in adipose tissue suppress inflammatory responses by producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • A novel 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2Dresponse element in the promoter region of Insig-2 gene was identified which specifically binds to the heterodimer of retinoid X receptor and vitamin D receptor (VDR) and directs VDR-mediated transcriptional activation in a 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal Stem
  • Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that maintain homeostasis in the human body by regeneration and repair of damaged and aged tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2015) Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • When the melanocortin 5 receptor was disrupted in transgenic mice, it induced disruption of their exocrine glands and resulted in decreased production of sebum. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Further scrutinization of FRF for its in-vivo antidiabetic property demonstrated improved glycemic indices and decreased pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • extracellular
  • In electrically excitable cell types, plasma membrane depolarization usually leads to activation of voltage-gated Ca 2+ (Cav) channels allowing influx of Ca 2+ from the extracellular space [ 5 ] and receptor activation may lead to release of Ca 2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores [ 3 , 4 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • overexpression
  • In muscle, CAP/Ponsin plays a role in the formation of mature costameres from focal adhesion-like contacts during assembly of the contractile apparatus, as overexpression of CAP/Ponsin disrupted normal cell-matrix contact morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • The STK11/LKB1 gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumour suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy homeostasis
  • LKB1 is a primary upstream kinase of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a necessary element in cell metabolism that is required for maintaining energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • Dynamic alterations of the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) are vital to a wide array of cell biological processes such as signal transduction, muscle contraction, control of enzyme activity and regulation of exocytosis. (biochemj.org)