• heterotrimeric G protei
  • Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the G αq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The coupling of the receptor to heterotrimeric G proteins is inhibited by the binding of β-arrestin, which is likely to be the immediate cause of rapid desensitization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1998
  • Occupation of the β-adrenergic receptor by agonist stabilizes a conformation of the receptor that increases its phosphorylation by GRK, which in turn increases the affinity of the receptor for β-arrestin ( Krupnick and Benovic, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • β-Arrestin also acts as an adaptor protein to facilitate receptor endocytosis ( Krupnick and Benovic, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • amino
  • To facilitate purification and imaging of the D 1 receptor, we attached a polyhistidine tag to the amino terminus and enhanced green fluorescent protein to the carboxyl terminus of the receptor (D 1 -EGFP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we show that dopamine-mediated enhancement of spike firing in NAcb shell medium spiny neurons was prevented by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide but not by the phospholipase C inhibitor 1-[6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl) amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, suggesting a role for a diacylglycerol-independent atypical PKC (aPKC) isoform. (jneurosci.org)
  • For experiments with bisindolylmaleimide and 1-[6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl) amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione ( U73122 ), slices were pre-exposed for 30-60 min to enable adequate penetration, and whole-cell patch was achieved 10-15 min before dopamine application. (jneurosci.org)
  • subtypes
  • We are concentrating on hippocampal α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptor subtypes and how they interact with dopamine D1 and D2, serotonin 5HT2, GABA and glutamate NMDA systems with regard to memory, attention and nicotine self-administration. (duke.edu)
  • The methods comprise administering to a patient having such a pathological condition a plasmid encoding an oligonucleotide, antisense to one or more RNA molecules encoding one of the several dopamine receptors, thereby selectively controlling expression of one or more dopamine receptor subtypes, and alleviating the pathological conditions related to their expression. (google.com)
  • knockout mice
  • Using knockout mice, we have found that β2-containinc nicotinic receptors appear to be more important for the initiation of nicotine self-administration during the first few weeks, whereas α7 nicotinic receptors appear to be more important for the long-term consumption of nicotine over a period of 5 months. (duke.edu)
  • Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in G αq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through G αq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task. (frontiersin.org)
  • MU-opioid receptor-knockout mice: role of mu-opioid receptor in morphine mediated immune functions. (naver.com)
  • cyclic
  • We conclude that protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of the D 1 receptor on Thr268 regulates a late step in the sorting of the receptor to the perinuclear region of the cell, but that phosphorylation of Thr268 is not required for receptor sequestration or maximal desensitization of cyclic AMP accumulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GABA
  • Currently, our principal research focus concerns nicotinic receptor systems and their interactions with related transmitter systems such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinepherine, GABA and glutamate. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABA(A) agonist was evaluated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • regulation
  • Dopaminergic neurotransmission is prominently implicated in emergence from the minimal conscious state, 1 , 2 general anesthesia, 3 and in sleep-wake regulation. (asahq.org)
  • Specifically
  • First, from a clinical point of view, accurate knowledge of the molecular basis for emergence from general anesthetics with agents for which no specific antagonists exists ( i.e ., inhalational agents) and for other anesthetic regimens could lead to the development of a range of new drugs specifically designed for rapid emergence. (asahq.org)
  • experiments
  • 126 NaCl, 1.6 KCl, 1.2 NaH 2 PO 4 , 1.2 MgCl 2 , 2.4 CaCl 2 , 18 NaHCO 3 , and 11 glucose, pH 7.2-7.4, mOsm 301-305) for 30 min to 5 h before experiments. (jneurosci.org)
  • gene
  • Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene expression: synergistic activation by Egr-1, AP-2 and the glucocorticoid receptor. (naver.com)
  • 5. The DNA construct as claimed in claim 1, further comprising at least one selectable marker gene, said at least one selectable marker gene being disposed within said construct so as not to disrupt expression of said DNA segment and encoding a protein conferring resistance to a selection agent. (google.com)
  • 6. The DNA construct as claimed in claim 5, wherein said selectable marker gene confers resistance to a selection agent selected from the group consisting of hygromycin, neomycin, ampicillin, spectinomycin, and streptomycin. (google.com)
  • molecular
  • Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, vol. 73 no. 7 (July, 2005), pp. 481-484 [ 15959889 ], [ doi ]. (duke.edu)
  • Clinical
  • An orally active clinical candidate of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF 1) antagonist 1 showed a significant positive food effect in dog and human after oral administration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • increases
  • Second, a better understanding of the neuronal mechanisms by which DA increases the emergence from anesthesia will also help in the management of patients with DA abnormalities as may be the case for patients with Parkinson disease, schizophrenic patients treated with depot neuroleptics (long-acting dopamine-2 receptor [D2R] antagonists) and drug abusers. (asahq.org)
  • protein
  • The aim of this study was to use pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase A and mutation of potential protein kinase A phosphorylation sites to determine the role of protein kinase A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the dopamine D 1 receptor in agonist-stimulated desensitization and internalization of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pretreatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 ( N -[2-( p -bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide) or substitution of Ala for Thr268 reduced agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the receptor and resulted in diminished trafficking of the receptor to the perinuclear region of the cell. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cells
  • D 1 -EGFP and two mutants in which either Thr268 or Ser380 was replaced with Ala were stably expressed in NS20Y neuroblastoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • effect
  • They documented that the D1R agonist reduced the time to emergence by approximately 30% and found that this effect could be abolished by a D1R antagonist. (asahq.org)
  • Substitution of Ala for Ser380 had no effect on D 1 receptor phosphorylation, sequestration, desensitization, or trafficking to the perinuclear region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • times
  • Although G αq and G α11 are expressed together in almost every cell type, the relative levels of expression vary across brain regions with G αq expression being 2-5 times higher than G α11 in most areas ( Milligan, 1993 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks. (expressmeds24h.bid)
  • competitive
  • pA 2 = 6.8) and sulpiride (10 -4 M) in a competitive manner. (pcom.edu)
  • α 2 antagonists yohimbine (10 -5 M) and idazoxan (10 -5 M) blocked the response to DA in a competitive manner, while α 1 antagonist prazosin (10 -5 M) completely blocked the response to DA. (pcom.edu)
  • Desipramine (10 -5 M) blocked the response of DA in a non-competitive manner. (pcom.edu)
  • issue
  • This article was published in Indian journal of experimental biology , Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 176-179. (pcom.edu)
  • brain
  • 11 Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in the postnatal and adult rat brain. (naver.com)
  • group
  • 3. The DNA construct as claimed in claim 1, wherein said 5' promoter element is selected from the group consisting of cytomegalovirus promoter element, metallothionein promoter element, SV40 promoter element, and heat shock promoter element. (google.com)
  • 4. The DNA construct as claimed in claim 1, wherein said 3' polyadenylation signal sequence is selected from the group consisting of bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal sequences and thymidine kinase polyadenylation signal sequences. (google.com)