• activator
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF2 (NHERF-2) also known as tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 (TKA-1) or SRY-interacting protein 1 (SIP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3R2 (solute carrier family 9 isoform A3 regulatory factor 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Other roles have been proposed to involve immunoregulatory function by activating innate and adaptive immunity and cytokine release, activating inflammation by upregulation of nuclear factor κB and inducing tumor necrosis factor α, and other molecular actions to maintain glucose homeostasis and mediate insulin sensitivity by a low calcium status, obesity, or by elevating serum levels of parathyroid hormone. (scribd.com)
  • regulate
  • NHERF-2) is a scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition causes many diseases related with calcium reabsorption, because the principal function of the parathyroid hormone is to regulate it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common features, such as looking similar, having special secretory granules, and often producing biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • Vitamin D is characterized as a regulator of homeostasis of bone and mineral metabolism, but it can also provide nonskeletal actions because vitamin D receptors have been found in various tissues including the brain, prostate, breast, colon, pancreas, and immune cells. (scribd.com)
  • The potential role of vitamin D deficiency in insulin resistance has been proposed to be associated with inherited gene polymorphisms including vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. (scribd.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone and plays an essential role in a vast number of physiologic processes and clinical consequences [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to its traditional effects on calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D receptors (VDR) exist on a very wide range of tissues, including the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes, suggesting a much wider range of biological functions [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Menopause represents an important transition in vitamin D requirements due to the dependence of the VDR on oestrogen [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes are more likely to be vitamin deficient, and some studies suggest that vitamin deficiency increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • One of the 13 essential vitamins, vitamin D, has been an area of focus for researchers due to its effects on the parathyroid hormone, glucose homeostasis and immune system. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • It has been postulated that vitamin D may reduce insulin resistance indirectly through upregulation of the insulin receptor gene and through its effect on calcium and phosphate metabolism. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Researchers of this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin D deficiency. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • The results of this trial indicate that vitamin D supplementation can improve glucose homeostasis and the cholesterol profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Vitamin D is responsible for regulating the expression of many genes (at the level of transcription or by membrane receptors) that are mainly associated with the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate, carbohydrates, and lipids, as well as with the immune response or anticancer activity [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • The appropriate concentration of vitamin D is important in many diseases, including abdominal obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia [3, (termedia.pl)
  • Moreover, the complex metabolism of vitamin D, including its transformations and transport, determines its total and bioavailable pool, and it also depends on the calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in the blood [3, 5, (termedia.pl)
  • It should be noted that free vitamin D, although it constitutes only a small percentage (0.1-2%) of the total vitamin in all forms in the human body, is characterized by high biological activity (in accordance with the "free hormone hypothesis", only unbound molecules can freely migrate through cell membranes and cause particular metabolic effects) . (termedia.pl)
  • Enchondromatosis
  • Enchondromatosis, Multiple, Ollier Type, also known as enchondromatosis , is related to carpotarsal osteochondromatosis and hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis, type i , and has symptoms including anemia , platyspondyly and hemangioma . (malacards.org)
  • Defects in this receptor are known to be the cause of Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC), chondrodysplasia Blomstrand type (BOCD), as well as enchondromatosis and primary failure of tooth eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Defects in pancreatic β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation all contribute to the development of type 2 DM. (scribd.com)
  • proteins
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. (ku.dk)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by Gs G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Type 1 pseudohypoparathyroidism may present with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy which consists of symptoms and signs such as shortened fourth and fifth metacarpal and metartasal bones, obesity, mental retardation and short stature. (medicalrealm.net)
  • The need to reinforce a healthy lifestyle is more important than ever with the rate of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease steadily rising. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. (labome.org)
  • In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) is increasing at an alarming rate both nationally and worldwide. (scribd.com)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes often have carbohydrate-heavy diets and most do not adhere to a healthy, balanced diet. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome includes a number of disorders whose coexistence increases the risk of development of, among others, atherosclerotic cardiovascular system diseases and type-2 diabetes mellitus. (termedia.pl)
  • Thiazides have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to increase risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11(R6OC) is partly dependent on coupling to the CASR. (ku.dk)
  • pathways
  • Upon binding these receptors, cells use several signal transduction pathways to elicit immune responses in these cells (See Section 3 for more detail). (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • The incidence of type 2 DM is increasing worldwide and results from a lack of insulin or inadequate insulin secretion following increases in insulin resistance. (scribd.com)
  • regulation
  • Type 2 pseudohypoparathyroidism occurs due to alteration of the regulation of the Gs-α. (medicalrealm.net)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, research in the Laboratory of Mark Mattson has shown that TNF can prevent the death/apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB which induces the expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • but the leptin does not turn on the leptin receptor, hence the patient has functional leptin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Blood levels of parathryoid hormone (PTH) are undetectable, but the mutation in the PTHR1 leads to auto-activation of the signaling as though the hormone PTH is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1949, a non-obese mouse colony being studied at the Jackson Laboratory produced a strain of obese offspring, suggesting that a mutation had occurred in a hormone regulating hunger and energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in the gene encoding the type III sodium dependent phosphate transporter 2 (SLC20A2) located on chromosome 8 has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • Recently, we identified gain-of-function mutations in Gα11 in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. (ku.dk)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in this gene result in hypophosphatemic nephrolithiasis/osteoporosis type 2, and loss of heterozygosity of this gene is implicated in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • high
  • Common complications like vascular (VC) and mitral valve calcification are clinically observed as changes in intima media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification, pulse pressure, or pulse wave velocity and have been implicated with the high cardiovascular mortality incidences observed [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In a chronic study, BP was measured in freely moving rats using telemetry during normal and high sodium intake (2% NaCl as drinking water for 2 wk). (physiology.org)
  • chromosome
  • Partial list of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human chromosome 3: ALAS1: aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 APEH: encoding enzyme Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin nucleating complex subunit BRPF1: bromodomain and PHD finger containing 1 BTD: biotinidase C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second locus has been identified on chromosome 8 and a third has been reported on chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)