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  • PTH2
  • PTH2 receptor expression is high in the CNS, where it is concentrated in limbic, hypothalamic, and sensory areas, especially hypothalamic periventricular neurons, nerve terminals in the median eminence, superficial layers of the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the caudal part of the sensory trigeminal nucleus. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Molecular determinants of tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) selectivity for the parathyroid hormone-2 (PTH2) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • activator
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF2 (NHERF-2) also known as tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 (TKA-1) or SRY-interacting protein 1 (SIP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3R2 (solute carrier family 9 isoform A3 regulatory factor 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Other roles have been proposed to involve immunoregulatory function by activating innate and adaptive immunity and cytokine release, activating inflammation by upregulation of nuclear factor κB and inducing tumor necrosis factor α, and other molecular actions to maintain glucose homeostasis and mediate insulin sensitivity by a low calcium status, obesity, or by elevating serum levels of parathyroid hormone. (scribd.com)
  • CaSR
  • Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11(R6OC) is partly dependent on coupling to the CASR. (ku.dk)
  • hypothalamus
  • Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Type 2 pseudohypoparathyroidism occurs due to alteration of the regulation of the Gs-α. (medicalrealm.net)
  • Luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA pull-down assays were used to verify the transcription regulation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2). (paperity.org)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • NHERF-2) is a scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enchondromatosis
  • Enchondromatosis, Multiple, Ollier Type, also known as enchondromatosis , is related to carpotarsal osteochondromatosis and hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis, type i , and has symptoms including anemia , platyspondyly and hemangioma . (malacards.org)
  • Defects in this receptor are known to be the cause of Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC), chondrodysplasia Blomstrand type (BOCD), as well as enchondromatosis and primary failure of tooth eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Defects in pancreatic β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation all contribute to the development of type 2 DM. (scribd.com)
  • proteins
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. (ku.dk)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by Gs G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • In addition to its traditional effects on calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D receptors (VDR) exist on a very wide range of tissues, including the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes, suggesting a much wider range of biological functions [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This condition causes many diseases related with calcium reabsorption, because the principal function of the parathyroid hormone is to regulate it. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • Vitamin D is characterized as a regulator of homeostasis of bone and mineral metabolism, but it can also provide nonskeletal actions because vitamin D receptors have been found in various tissues including the brain, prostate, breast, colon, pancreas, and immune cells. (scribd.com)
  • The potential role of vitamin D deficiency in insulin resistance has been proposed to be associated with inherited gene polymorphisms including vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. (scribd.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone and plays an essential role in a vast number of physiologic processes and clinical consequences [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Menopause represents an important transition in vitamin D requirements due to the dependence of the VDR on oestrogen [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • regulate
  • Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Partial list of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human chromosome 3: ALAS1: aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 APEH: encoding enzyme Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin nucleating complex subunit BRPF1: bromodomain and PHD finger containing 1 BTD: biotinidase C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second locus has been identified on chromosome 8 and a third has been reported on chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in the gene encoding the type III sodium dependent phosphate transporter 2 (SLC20A2) located on chromosome 8 has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Appropriate sample types may include undiluted body fluids and/or tissue homogenates, secretions. (mybiosource.com)
  • Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common features, such as looking similar, having special secretory granules, and often producing biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, research in the Laboratory of Mark Mattson has shown that TNF can prevent the death/apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB which induces the expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • but the leptin does not turn on the leptin receptor, hence the patient has functional leptin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTHR1
  • Blood levels of parathryoid hormone (PTH) are undetectable, but the mutation in the PTHR1 leads to auto-activation of the signaling as though the hormone PTH is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • Lymphoma (lymposarcoma) in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric lymphoma, the most common type (by greater than 80 percent), is found in the lymph nodes, with or without involvement in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Common complications like vascular (VC) and mitral valve calcification are clinically observed as changes in intima media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification, pulse pressure, or pulse wave velocity and have been implicated with the high cardiovascular mortality incidences observed [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer is classified into low and high grade types. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Type 1 pseudohypoparathyroidism may present with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy which consists of symptoms and signs such as shortened fourth and fifth metacarpal and metartasal bones, obesity, mental retardation and short stature. (medicalrealm.net)
  • tumor types
  • The process we developed can be readily applied to identify diagnostic and therapeutic targets for any of the 30 or more tumor types for which large amounts of transcriptome data now exist. (pnas.org)
  • The systematic process described herein is readily and rapidly applicable to the more than 30 additional tumor types for which sufficient amounts of RNA-seq already exist. (pnas.org)
  • Within the broad category of neuroendocrine tumors there are many different tumor types: this outline is presented to facilitate retrieving information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in this gene result in hypophosphatemic nephrolithiasis/osteoporosis type 2, and loss of heterozygosity of this gene is implicated in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • regulates
  • This "classical" PTH receptor is expressed in high levels in bone and kidney and regulates calcium ion homeostasis through activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. In bone, it is expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Upon binding these receptors, cells use several signal transduction pathways to elicit immune responses in these cells (See Section 3 for more detail). (wikipedia.org)
  • adipose
  • Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)