• stimuli
  • The study, published today in Neuron , combined functional imaging, recordings of electrical activity in the brain and genetics to examine how neurons respond to a variety of stimuli in mice studies. (upi.com)
  • Neurons in the visual cortex fire action potentials when visual stimuli appear within their receptive field. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, for any given neuron, it may respond best to a subset of stimuli within its receptive field. (wikipedia.org)
  • These classes were called simple and complex cells, which differ in how their receptive fields respond to light and dark stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons, in the sense of being activated by stimuli in either eye, are first found in the visual cortex in layer 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple cells have separate regions in their receptive field that respond to light and dark stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike simple cells, the receptive field of complex cells have a mix of regions that respond to light and dark stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free software is now available to help neuroscientists interested in estimating receptive fields cope with the difficulty of using natural stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because features of an auditory stimulus are extracted by assemblies of neurons firing synchronously, a hypersynchronous neural ensemble could signal the presence of "auditory objects" even in the absence of external stimuli, giving rise to the tinnitus percept. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our lab identifies mechanisms that underlie the sensitivity and selectivity with which neurons in the mammalian nervous system respond to visual stimuli. (janelia.org)
  • For example, in the retina and superior colliculus (and other areas), electrical activity of neurons is influenced by visual stimuli emanating from particular regions of the external world. (janelia.org)
  • Examining light-evoked activity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons through which information about all light stimuli is transmitted to the brain, provides an unusually good opportunity to distinguish the relative degree to which circuit, synaptic, and cellular properties underlie RGC receptive fields. (janelia.org)
  • Decades of detailed anatomical studies, and new techniques to label and manipulate specific sets of neurons, enable us to measure and control the source and properties of signals that a given RGC receives in response to physiological stimuli. (janelia.org)
  • A similar approach will also help us to identify mechanisms that govern the range and specificity of light stimuli to which neurons downstream of the retina respond. (janelia.org)
  • These studies will help (1) characterize the propagation and transformation of signals through multiple levels of the early visual system and (2) identify the precise circuit and cellular mechanisms that govern the sets of stimuli that do and do not elicit activity in particular classes of neurons. (janelia.org)
  • Neurons in the superficial layers receive direct input from the retina and respond almost exclusively to visual stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many neurons in the deeper layers also respond to other modalities, and some respond to stimuli in multiple modalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • For example, a neuron in V1 may fire to any vertical stimulus in its receptive field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the prestriate cortex (V2) and ventral extrastriate area (V4), binocular neurons respond most readily to a centre-surround stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each neuron also responded to a visual stimulus near or approaching the tactile receptive field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical enhancement of these neurons produced a "super flincher" state in which any mild stimulus, such as an object gently moved toward the face, evoked a full-blown flinching reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • One common way to find the receptive field is to use linear regression to find which stimulus characteristics typically caused neurons to become excited or depressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of neural networks, the morphology of neurons, and the receptor and ion channel complement of pre-synaptic connections cause some neurons to respond maximally to a particular stimulus frequency, phase, amplitude or temporal pattern, and this is known as spectral-temporal tuning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulus-selective tuning is determined by the receptor proteins and ion channels characterizing synapses of these neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behaviour that derives from a common set of active neurons is linear in the input, whereas behaviour that derives from a comparison (to effect selection) among different sets of active neurons (more than one stimulus, an aspect of an interface assisted pattern presented to the brain for processing) is nonlinear in the input. (blogspot.com)
  • The lateral intraparietal sulcus (LIP) contains neurons that produce enhanced activation when attention is moved onto the stimulus or the animal saccades towards a visual stimulus, and the ventral intraparietal sulcus (VIP) where visual and somatosensory information are integrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using in vivo targeted whole-cell recordings from excitatory and inhibitory neurons of mouse primary auditory cortex, we report two temporally distinct components of membrane potential responses encoding oddball tones that break stimulus regularity. (jneurosci.org)
  • neuron's receptive field
  • In constructing a neuron's receptive field, the visual system cannot control both the positions of the cone photoreceptors from which the neuron draws signals and the types of cones (L, M, or S) from which it draws signals: High-precision spatial sampling is purchased at the expense of high-precision chromatic sampling and vice versa. (arvojournals.org)
  • auditory neurons
  • Tuning characteristics of auditory neurons have been best characterized in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), canary (Serinus canaria), European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and barn owl (Tyto alba). (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • The arrangements of branches within neuronal arbors are established during development and result in minimal crossing or overlap as they spread over a territory, resulting in the typical fasciculated morphology of neurons (Fig 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The conservation of the mechanism in invertebrates together with the fact that adult morphology of many neurons appears to satisfy the rule, suggested that non-overlap of isoneuronal processes could be a general phenomenon of neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo processing by other neurons of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term Deep Learning was introduced to the machine learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986, and to Artificial Neural Networks by Igor Aizenberg and colleagues in 2000, in the context of Boolean threshold neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • fields
  • Dr. Steven Chang went further in depth by showing the receptive fields of PRR neurons are multiplicatively stimulated through the combination of initial gaze position and initial hand position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) have receptive fields that are tuned to respond to the specific combination of spectral and temporal features present in syllables of conspecific song. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that color-preferring cells are often driven well through both eyes, and further that in these cells the chromatic properties of the receptive fields are well matched, so they are equipped to provide a binocular representation of color. (arvojournals.org)
  • Utilized together, these biological and technical features enable us to parse the relative degree to which synaptic, cellular, and network properties contribute to RGC receptive fields. (janelia.org)
  • In particular, we have begun to determine to what degree differences in the receptive fields of neurons in the superior colliculus reflect properties of the neurons themselves, the collicular networks in which they are embedded, and/or the characteristics and source of synaptic input they receive from RGCs. (janelia.org)
  • They observed that receptive fields were subdivided into discrete areas, innervated by the different branches of a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • For example, in the inferior temporal cortex (IT), a neuron may fire only when a certain face appears in its receptive field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons appear in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), the ventral extrastriate area (V4), the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), medial superior temporal area, caudal intraparietal area, and a collection of areas in the anterior inferior temporal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in both the medial superior temporal area and dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT) respond to surface depth sparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] On one hand, the anticorrelated response of the binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), and medial superior temporal area, all show similar responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 'where' description will involve neurons in the lateral and ventral temporal lobe neocortex, though other areas have also been implicated. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the clinical presentation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is characterized by progressive neuronal loss predominantly involving the frontal or temporal lobes, and typical loss of over 70% of spindle neurons, while other neuron types remain intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • The descending branches of those same nerve fibers make contact as pericellular nests of boutons terminaux or boutons en passage neurons of different classes within PVCN and DCN, and here the transformations are quite different from those in AVCN. (scribd.com)
  • Finally come the two deep layers: Lamina VI or SGP, the stratum griseum profundum ("deep gray layer"), consists of loosely packed neurons and myelinated fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Graziano has made contributions in three areas of neuroscience: how neurons in the primate brain encode peripersonal space, how the motor cortex controls complex movement, and the possible neuronal basis of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons that encode peripersonal space may also provide a neuronal basis for the psychological phenomenon of personal space. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • The selective response properties of neurons in the songbird auditory pathway has been proposed as the mechanism responsible for both the innate and acquired components of this preference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong conspecific-selective responses have been most consistently demonstrated in neurons of the higher-level structures of the auditory system: The caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), the auditory thalamo-recipient subfield (Field L: L1, L2a, L2b, L3), and the caudal mesopallium (CM: CMM and CLM). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity and maintenance of neurons requires substantial metabolic energy, resulting in selective pressure to decrease resource consumption by the nervous system. (stanford.edu)
  • dorsal
  • However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. (jneurosci.org)
  • Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dorsal ocelli ubiquitously have massive convergence ratios from first-order (photoreceptor) to second-order neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • macaque
  • We test this directly by characterizing the tuning of V1 and V2 neurons in the macaque for chromatic stimulation in both eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • medial
  • In the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, hedgehog (hh) is expressed in medial cephalic ganglia neurons, suggesting a possible role in CNS maintenance or regeneration. (stanford.edu)
  • shapes
  • Lamina II or SGS, the stratum griseum superficiale ("superficial gray layer"), contains many neurons of various shapes and sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Most importantly, gene expression studies have demonstrated that, as a broad unit, neurons in the AFP and SMP show increased activation when a bird is singing, but not when it is simply listening to song. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tau-positive frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FTDP-17) is caused by mutations in the MAPT gene on chromosome 17 that encodes the Tau protein It has been determined that there is a direct relationship between the type of tau mutation and the neuropathology of gene mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • However, the hope is that there are unifying principles which govern how the brain encodes and processes information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two additional neurons (PLML and PLMR) have processes extending from the tail to the midbody and are required for escape responses to posterior gentle touch. (physiology.org)
  • nervous system
  • The directional flow of information in the nervous system relies on the compartmentalization of neurons. (biologists.org)
  • In this animal, the repeating segmental pattern of the nervous system along with the fact that neurons are relatively few in number, and many are large enough to be recognized allowed the experimental study of the general problem of neuronal specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The late component in excitatory neurons thus shares time course, deviance detection, and pharmacological features with the deviant-evoked event-related potential known as mismatch negativity (MMN) and provides a potential link between neuronal SSA and MMN. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuronal self-avoidance, or isoneural avoidance, is an important property of neurons which consists in the tendency of branches (dendrites and axons) arising from a single soma (also called isoneuronal or sister branches) to turn away from one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, neuronal self-avoidance does play a significant role in the development of mechanosensory receptive field structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • In the 1990s Graziano with Charles Gross described the properties of a set of multisensory neurons in the monkey brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Graziano's interpretation, these multisensory neurons form a specialized brain-wide network that encodes the space near the body, computes a margin of safety, and helps to coordinate movements in relation to nearby objects with an emphasis on withdrawal or blocking movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are using months-to-years long 'brain-a-dish' cultures (also known as brain region-specific organoids or spheroids) to understand how neurons find their final position in the brain and how they mature functionally. (stanford.edu)
  • In addition to auditory nerve input, there is a rich network of interneurons that forms circuits within and between CN subdivisions (Lorente de No, 1981) along with a substantial set of afferents derived from neurons in other regions of the auditory brain stem. (scribd.com)
  • respond
  • In males, however, most song system neurons respond maximally to the sound of the bird's own song, even more than they do to the tutor's song or any other conspecific song. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons can selectively respond to time-based differences between songs (e.g. syllable length or syllable-interval length) if they are post-synaptic to either fast-release (ionotropic) or slow-release (metabotropic) glutamate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Neurons in the prestriate cortex (V2) are more sensitive to different disparities than those in the striate cortex (V1). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Electrical stimulation of these multisensory neurons almost always evoked a complex, coordinated movement that resembled a flinching, blocking, or protecting action. (wikipedia.org)
  • recordings
  • We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • structures
  • Researchers found that the unusual nerve terminals in these neurons made lasso-like structures around the base of each hair follicle. (upi.com)
  • mechanical
  • But they know more about neurons involved with temperature and touch than those underlying mechanical pain, like anatomical pain related to specific postures or activities. (upi.com)
  • response
  • In addition, we identified a slower "late" response component (200-400 ms after tone onset), most clearly in excitatory and parvalbumin-positive neurons, which also displayed SSA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Each layer contains a topographic map of the surrounding world in retinotopic coordinates, and activation of neurons at a particular point in the map evokes a response directed toward the corresponding point in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The activity of these multisensory neurons therefore signaled the presence of an object near or touching a part of the body, regardless of whether the object was felt, seen, heard, or remembered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ordinarily, a saccade is generated when underlying activity in the oculomotor circuit is robust enough to inhibit pontine omnipause neurons (OPNs), which gate the saccadic system by firing spikes at a tonic rate during fixation and becoming quiescent during saccades ( Keller, 1974 ). (jneurosci.org)