• trimer
  • In contrast, at low pH, only low quantities of the trimer are produced and the nature of the applied acid has a distinct effect on the reaction outcome. (rsc.org)
  • Complex organic acids, such as e.g. maleic or nicotinic acid, lead to comparable quantities of the trimer and acetaldehyde. (rsc.org)
  • pathway
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and acetaldehyde from 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate , the pathway 2-deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation and in Carbohydrate degradation . (uniprot.org)
  • Methyl
  • One example of the Strecker synthesis is a multikilogram scale synthesis of an L-valine derivative starting from Methyl isopropyl ketone: The asymmetric Strecker reaction was pioneered by Kaoru Harada in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tishchenko reaction of paraformaldehyde in the presence of aluminum methylate or magnesium methylate forms methyl formate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R-CO-CH3 group) in the presence of a base. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction forms the basis of the iodoform test which was commonly used in history as a chemical test to determine the presence of a methyl ketone, or a secondary alcohol oxidizable to a methyl ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, this reaction may be used to convert a terminal methyl ketone into the analogous carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium hydroxide
  • When iodine and sodium hydroxide are used as the reagents a positive reaction gives iodoform, which is a solid at room temperature and tends to precipitate out of solution causing a distinctive cloudiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Individuals with deficient acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity are far less likely to become alcoholics , but seem to be at a greater risk of liver damage, alcohol-induced asthma, and contracting cancers of the oro-pharynx and esophagus due to acetaldehyde overexposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Benzene is the prototypical example of an aromatic compound, a hitherto unknown class of compounds, and its synthesis was the first example of aromatization, the process and chemical reactions whereby an aromatic system is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • paths
  • The favorable reaction paths begin with α-hydroxyethylperoxy radical, CH 3 CH(OO)OH, in a exothermic process and finally leads to the product P1 (CH 3 COOH + OH). (dtu.dk)
  • The overall rate constants for favorite reaction paths have been calculated at different temperatures (200-2500 K). (dtu.dk)
  • addition
  • Kekulé suggested in reply that benzene had two complementary structures and that these forms rapidly interconverted, which would also explain the lack of addition reactions (as the valency of each carbon atom is not that expected of a double bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reaction step involves 1,4-addition of the catalytic tertiary amine to the activated alkene to generate the zwitterionic aza-enolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The potential for acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde to produce cancer in humans has not been determined, but reducing occupational exposures to these chemicals should lower the risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction can be used to transform acetyl groups into carboxyl groups or to produce chloroform (CHCl3), bromoform (CHBr3), or iodoform (CHI3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Products
  • 3) Reaction products usually contain multiple functionalities in a proximity so that a variety of further transformations are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum shows that there are three environments for protons, in the ratio of 3:2:1 corresponding to CH3 SH and CH. 1,1-Ethanedithiol has several reactions known that are important in white wine flavours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is also known as the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction or MBH reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • In bacteria, acylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase forms a bifunctional heterodimer with metal-dependent 4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase . (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • In 1831, Justus von Liebig reported the reaction of chloral with calcium hydroxide to form chloroform and calcium formate. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • NIOSH therefore considers acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde to be potential occupational carcinogens and recommends that exposures to each be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • advantages
  • MBH reaction has several advantages as a useful synthetic method: 1) It is an atom-economic coupling of easily prepared starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • The purpose of this bulletin is to disseminate recent information about the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde both meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for classifying substances as potential occupational carcinogens [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1990 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • effect
  • Aggarwal and Harvey modeled the two pathways using density functional theory calculations and showed that the computed energy profile matches well with the experimental kinetic isotope effect and observed rate of reaction. (wikipedia.org)